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Apple's Way

Apple's Way is an American drama television series which aired Sundays at 7:30 pm (EST) on CBS from 1974 to 1975. It was created by Earl Hamner Jr.

LaserWriter - Apple's development

At about the same time, Jonathan Seybold (John W. Seybold's son) introduced Paul Brainerd to Apple, where he learned of Apple's laser printer efforts and saw the potential for a new program using the Mac's GUI to produce PostScript output for the new printer. Arranging his own funding through a venture capital firm, Brainerd formed Aldus and began development of what would become PageMaker. The VC coined the term "desktop publishing" during this time.

David J. Apple - Apple's legacy

Research Laboratory. At the time of his death, Apple's laboratory was in Sullivan's Island near Charleston, South Carolina. In 2012 the David J Apple International Laboratory for Ocular Pathology was re-located and re-established at Heidelberg University, in the University Eye Department. Professor Gerd U. Auffarth, Eye Department Chairman - a former research fellow in the Apple Korps - outlined his plans to create an international laboratory for research on intraocular ophthalmic devices, thus continuing and extending the research work initiated by David Apple. The laboratory in Heidelberg holds Professor Apple’s archives, historical laboratory samples and correspondence.

Apple community - Apple's response

Apple's official stance on speculation around any future product releases, is that they do not directly comment on such speculation nor discuss any products, until they are finally released. Historically, Apple has often used legal means, such as cease and desist orders, in order to retain trade secrets, intellectual property, or confidential corporate information, when needed. Typically, Apple has primarily pursued the leakers of information themselves, rather than any sites containing rumors on their products. However, Apple's suit against Think Secret in 2005 targeted whether these sites have the right to knowingly publish this protected information. Staff are also required to sign non-disclosure clauses within the company.

Apple Maps - Apple's response

As a result of the criticism, Tim Cook, CEO of Apple Inc., published a letter of apology on Apple's website on September 28, 2012, in which he apologized for the "frustrations" experienced by users. He said that Apple fell short and that the company was making every effort to improve the mapping service. Cook also suggested that dissatisfied users could use rival mapping applications like Bing Maps, MapQuest, Waze, Google Maps, and Nokia Maps. Steve Jobs, former CEO of Apple Inc., had used this way of apologizing in the past. A week before the release of the letter of apology, just after the launch of Apple Maps, spokesperson Trudy Miller had stated to technology news website All Things Digital that Apple Maps was a major initiative and that they "were just getting started with it." Miller also said the application would improve as more people used it.

Apple Maps - Apple's response

In June 2016, Eddy Cue said in an interview with Fast Company that Apple "had completely underestimated the product, the complexity of it." He also said the problems with Apple Maps led to "significant changes to all of our development processes." After the launch of Maps, Apple started offering public betas of new versions of iOS and OS X. Furthermore, Cue commented that before Maps was launched Apple's executive team long discussed if Apple should have its own mapping service. One month later, Tim Cook looked back to the launch of Apple Maps in an interview with The Washington Post and said "Maps was a mistake." He added that the company admitted its mistake and that Maps is something the company is now proud of because of the improvements.

Apple community - Apple's response

During his January 10, 2006 keynote address to the Macworld Conference & Expo in San Francisco, Apple's then CEO Steve Jobs poked fun at the rumors community by pretending to create a "Super Secret Apple Rumors" podcast during his demonstration of new features in GarageBand.

Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland - Apple's inversion

Apple's Q1 2015 leprechaun economics re-structure of their Irish BEPS tool, is considered by some economists to be a quasi–inversion. Whereas Apple did not relocate its corporate headquarters to Ireland like Pfizer tried to do with Allergan, Apple was able to use the CAIA BEPS tool to legally re-locate $300 billion of IP, equivalent to all of Apple's non–U.S. business, to Ireland. While the Obama administration blocked the proposed $160 billion Pfizer–Allergan tax inversion to Ireland in 2016 (see above), Apple completed a much larger transaction in Q1 2015, that remained unknown until January 2018. In July 2018, Irish newspaper The Sunday Business Post reported that Microsoft was planning a similar IP–based quasi–inversion to Ireland, as Apple executed in 2015.

Apple's transition to Intel processors - Product renaming

The names of some of Apple's desktop and laptop product lines changed between the PowerPC version and the corresponding Intel version. Most notably, the word "Power" was dropped from all product lines. During the Keynote address at Macworld in 2006, where the first Intel-based Macs, the iMac and MacBook Pro, were announced, Steve Jobs remarked that the new naming schemes for their products reflected their desire to have "Mac" in the name of all of their computers, and because they were "done with power." This was in reference to the fact that the previous PowerPC G5 processors were not energy efficient, and therefore used far too much power to be used in any portable Macs.

Apple's transition to Intel processors - Hardware-oriented

There were questions over the extent to which Apple would retain control over the non-processor components of the system design. Apple is traditionally a systems builder, and some feared that Apple's industrial design philosophy may be affected if the company switched to commodity parts. Others noted that Apple has slowly been switching to standard parts since the introduction of the PCI Power Mac in 1995, and said that using a non-Apple chipset in itself would not harm the Mac's image.

Apple's transition to Intel processors - Reasons

Steve Jobs stated that Apple's primary motivation for the transition was their disappointment with the progress of IBM's development of PowerPC technology, and their greater faith in Intel to meet Apple's needs. In particular, he cited the performance per watt projections in the roadmap provided by Intel. This is an especially important consideration in laptop design, which affects the hours of use per battery charge.

Apple's transition to Intel processors

Apple's initial press release indicated the transition would begin by June 2006, and finish by the end of 2007, but it actually proceeded much more quickly. The first generation Intel-based Macintoshes were released in January 2006 with Mac OS X 10.4.4 Tiger, and Steve Jobs announced the last models to switch in August 2006, with the Mac Pro available immediately and with the Intel Xserve available by October 2006. The Xserve servers were available in December 2006.

EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland - Apple's Irish structure

In 2014, Apple's Irish structure consisted of two subsidiaries; Apple Operations Ireland ("AOI") an Irish-registered holding company which acts as an internal financing company. AOI claimed tax residence in Bermuda and thus, is not an Irish tax resident (the use of such a company in corporate tax structuring is sometimes referred to as a "Bermuda Black Hole"). The EU Commission State Aid fine does not pertain to AOI.

Apple's transition to Intel processors - Reaction to the change

The announcement of Apple's intention to switch to Intel-based Macs caused concern because Rosetta, the PowerPC dynamic translator, when first announced, emulated a G3 at only 60-80% of a similarly powered CPU's clock speed. Apart from this, Classic, the Mac OS 9 virtualization for Mac OS X, was not ported to the x86 architecture, leaving the new Intel-powered Macs incompatible with original Mac OS applications without a proper third-party PowerPC emulator.

EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland - Apple's Irish structure

Apple's unique ASI structure, is believed to be the reason why Apple never had an Apple retail store in the Republic of Ireland (it even has one in smaller Belfast).

Apple's transition to Intel processors - Reaction to the change

It was also feared that it may be possible for Windows and Windows applications to run natively on Mac hardware, possibly killing off Mac OS X and/or applications developed for it. There was concern that the early announcement of the change would cause an Osborne effect, and there was the possibility that Intel could force Apple to use the Intel Inside branding. In addition, Apple had nurtured a feeling of animosity toward Intel among its loyal base. It would take time and money to convince Apple's most loyal customers that Intel was acceptable.

Apple's transition to Intel processors

Apple's Intel Transition was the process of changing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. The transition became public knowledge at the 2005 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC), when Apple's CEO Steve Jobs made the announcement that the company would make a transition from the use of PowerPC microprocessors supplied by Freescale (formerly Motorola) and IBM in its Macintosh computers, to processors designed and manufactured by Intel, a chief supplier for most of Apple's competitors.

Double Irish arrangement - Apple's "leprechaun economics" (2015)

The EU Commission's 30 August 2016 findings against Apple's hybrid–Double Irish BEPS tool, Apple Sales International ("ASI"), covered the period from 2004 to end 2014 (see above). The EU's August 2016 report on Apple, notes that Apple had informed the Commission at the start of 2015 that they had closed their hybrid–Double Irish BEPS tool. In January 2018, Irish economist Seamus Coffey, Chairman of the State's Irish Fiscal Advisory Council, and author of the State's 2017 Review of Ireland's Corporation Tax Code, showed Apple restructured ASI into the CAIA BEPS tool in Q1 2015.

Double Irish arrangement - Apple's "leprechaun economics" (2015)

In June 2018, Apple's post Q1 2015 BEPS tax structure in Ireland was labelled "the Green Jersey" by the EU Parliament's GUE–NGL body and described in detail.

EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland - Apple's Irish structure

Under the Double Irish structure, one Irish subsidiary (IRL1) is an Irish registered company selling products to non–US locations from Ireland. The other Irish subsidiary (IRL2) is "registered" in Ireland, but "managed and controlled" from a tax haven such as Bermuda. The Irish tax code considers IRL2 a Bermuda company (used the "managed and controlled" test), but the US tax code considers IRL2 an Irish company (uses the registration test). Neither taxes it. Apple's subsidiary, ASI, behaved like it was IRL2, it was "managed and controlled" via ASI Board meetings in Bermuda, so Irish Revenue did not tax it. But ASI also did all the functions of IRL1, making circa €110.8 billion of profits from non–US sales. The EU Commission contest IRL1's actions made ASI Irish, and the functions of IRL1 over-rode the Bermuda Board meetings in deciding the "managed and controlled" test. The Commission had not brought any cases against US multinationals using the standard double two separate companies Irish BEPS tool.

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