The August Macke Prize, was given the first time in 1959 by the districts Arnsberg, Brilon, Olpe and Meschede, town of birth of August Macke in Germany.
On 8 August 1940, early in the Battle of Britain, the Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow, made the so-called "August Offer" at Simla, a fresh proposal promising the expansion of the Executive Council to include more Indians, the establishment of an advisory war council, giving full weight to minority opinion, and the recognition of Indians' right to frame their own constitution (after the end of the war). In return, it was hoped that all parties and communities in India would cooperate in Britain's war effort.
In the financial/economic recession and Panic of 1837, hundreds of American businesses, including the Rothschild family's American agent in New York City, collapsed. As a result, Belmont postponed his departure for Havana indefinitely and began a new firm, August Belmont & Company, believing that he could supplant the recently bankrupt firm, the American Agency. August Belmont & Company was an instant success, and Belmont restored health to the Rothschilds' U.S. interests over the next five years.
The August Paulsen Building was designed by architects Dow and Hubbell, partners John Kennedy Dow and Clarence Z. Hubbell, and built from 1908 to 1911 by the Fredrick Phair Company. It used the then new form of steel construction which allowed the 11-story building to become the tallest building in Spokane, at the time.
The August-Macke-Haus is a museum dedicated to August Macke founded in 1991. It is located in Macke's former home in Bonn, where he lived from 1911 to 1914.
The II Corps operations on the Gheluvelt Plateau from 31 July to 31 August were conducted by the 24th, 30th, 8th, 25th, 14th, 47th and 56th divisions; from 25 June – 31 August, the II Corps artillery fired more than 2.75 million shells. All of the II Corps divisions suffered many casualties and the torrential rains created exhausting conditions for the infantry. Edmonds wrote in 1948 that the costly failure to capture the plateau in August depressed British morale lower than ever before. The experience among the survivors, recounted in Britain by wounded troops, made a greater impression than the run of victories in September and early October. Edmonds also wrote that the fighting exhausted the divisions of the 4th Army, which was reinforced with divisions and 70 percent of the heavy artillery ammunition allotment from the French section of the Western Front. The French had been left "unmolested" and the Germans postponed plans for an offensive against the Russians. Edmonds quoted from Ludendorff (My War Memoirs, 1919) that
"...the costly August battles imposed a great strain on the Western troops.... The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans elsewhere. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings, and exceeded all our expectations."
In 1996, Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson wrote that changes in Fifth Army infantry tactics had no effect on the lack of accurate artillery firepower necessary to get infantry through the German defences without prohibitive casualties, then keep them there against German artillery-fire and infantry counter-attacks. After the German recapture of Inverness Copse on 24 August, Haig made the Second Army responsible for the Gheluvelt Plateau, preparatory to a new attack on both sides of the Menin road. The Fifth Army continued with local attacks and by 27 August was worn out. In 2004, John Lee wrote that the weather in August was the worst for 75 years but despite the conditions, Gough continued to order attacks which were inevitably defeated, causing a "severe loss of morale" among the British infantry.
The Fifth Army needed to maintain a brisk tempo of attack to prevent the Germans from recovering and to create the conditions for Operation Hush on the coast. Hush had to begin during the high tide period at the end of August or it would have to be postponed until the end of September. The Fifth Army had captured ground on the Gheluvelt Plateau on 31 July but the unusually wet and murky weather, the tenacious German defence and determined counter-attacks, left the 4th Army in control of the most vital objectives around Inverness Copse and Glencorse Wood. The II Corps attacked the Gheluvelt Plateau on 10, 16, 22 and 27 August. The Germans conducted local counter-attacks (Gegenstöße) with reserve units of the ground-holding divisions and made a bigger methodical counter-attack (Gegenangriff) on 24 August. Haig cancelled a general attack intended for 25 August and altered the Fifth Army–Second Army boundary for the third time. The Second Army took over the II Corps front on the Gheluvelt Plateau in early September and Plumer was allowed three weeks to prepare the next attack.
In 2008, J. P. Harris wrote that the August rain fell on both sides but that it benefited the defenders, because it made observation from the air harder, a greater disadvantage to the British and French, who had far more guns than the Germans. Mud stopped movement and the Germans were trying to hold ground, rather than attack like their opponents. The II Corps attack scheduled for 2 August was postponed several times until 10 August and fresh divisions attacked a limited objective. The ground was still waterlogged, British counter-battery fire failed to suppress the German guns and the attack was a costly failure at the most vital point. By late August, confidence in the handling of the battle by the Fifth Army HQ at GHQ and among the corps and divisional staffs had diminished but intelligence reports continued to be optimistic about the pressure on the Germans. Harris wrote that despite his "endemic optimism", Haig transferred control of the battle for the Gheluvelt Plateau to Plumer but let Fifth Army operations continue in the interim, then ordered them to stop after a series of "bloody failures" that caused a further loss of confidence in Gough.
*Eight days after the August 15 earthquake that struck in the Assam State of northeastern India, the Subansiri River broke through the blockage caused by landslides from the quake, sending 23 foot high waves through villages downstream, and killing 536 people.
*In Seoul, the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty was signed by Yi Wan-Yong, Prime Minister of Korea, on behalf of the Emperor of Korea, and by the Japanese Resident-General, Terauchi Masatake, on behalf of the Emperor of Japan, with the provision that "on August 29, 1910, the Imperial Government of Japan shall undertake the entire government and administration of Korea". One week later, Korea's status as an independent nation was changed to the Japanese territory of Cho-Sen, with Terauchi as Governor-General.
*On a hot August afternoon in Brooklyn, three men robbed a branch of the Chase Manhattan Bank, and their string of bad luck later became the subject of a 1975 film. John Wojtowicz and Salvatore Naturale robbed the bank and found that they had arrived after most of the cash had gone out on an armored car that morning, then were surprised by the police just as they were planning to get away. The crisis, which ended the next morning with Naturile being killed by an FBI agent and Wojtowicz's arrest, was later dramatized in the film Dog Day Afternoon, with Al Pacino as Sonny Wojtowicz.
== August 13, 1975 (Wednesday)== *A terrorist attack by the Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade on a popular pub in Belfast, Northern Ireland, killed five people and injured fifty. Driving up to the pub in a stolen car, two Brigade members killed two people outside, while another placed a bomb inside the Bayardo Bar and dashed out. The building collapsed on the occupants. Although the murder was believed to have been done in retaliation for the Miami Showband killings by the UVF on July 31, only one UVF member was killed. Brendan "Bik" McFarlane was arrested 20 minutes later, driving a car that met the description of the one used in the attack. He, along with Peter Hamilton and Seamus Clarke, would be convicted of the bombing and sentenced to life imprisonment. He would later coordinate the 1981 Irish hunger strike at Maze Prison, and lead the successful 1983 Maze Prison escape.
*The last of the United Kingdom's "Anti-Catholic Oaths", the 1672 Declaration of Attestation, was repealed by Act of Parliament and Royal Assent. The House of Commons had approved the legislation on July 27 by a vote of 410 to 84 and the House of Lords unanimously followed suit on August 2.
*Hot August Night, Neil Diamond's double platinum album, was recorded live at the Greek Theatre (Los Angeles).
*For the third time in nine days, the world record for fastest running of one mile was broken. Sebastian Coe had broken the record of Steve Ovett with 3:48.53 in Zurich on August 19. Ovett took the record back on August 26 in Koblenz at 3:47.33, and Coe set the mark again at Brussels, at 3 minutes, 46.32 seconds, a time that would stand until Steve Cram's run in 1985.
* Battle of Delville Wood – After a week delay due to rain, the British attacked and captured the rest of the front line German trench held since August 21.
*Far Eastern Air Transport Flight 103 suffered an explosive decompression at an altitude of 22,000 feet over the Taiwanese village of Sanyi, Miaoli, killing all 110 persons on board. The Boeing 737-200 had taken off from Taipei 14 minutes earlier en route to Kaohsiung. Subsequent investigation showed that the plane had lost cabin pressure on an August 5 flight, and again on a flight two hours earlier. The probable cause was found to have been corrosion of the fuselage floor, possibly caused by the transport in the cargo hold of open barrels of fish preserved in brine.
*Trinidad and Tobago, consisting of the two southernmost islands of the West Indies, became independent after 165 years as a British colony. As midnight approached in Port of Spain on August 30, the British flag was slowly lowered as the Royal Marine Band played Taps, and after a moment of silence, the new nation's red, white and black flag was quickly run up the flagpole as the National Guard and police bands played the new national anthem, Forged from the Love of Liberty. Eric Williams served as the nation's first Prime Minister, while former governor Solomon Hochoy became Governor-General.