The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, becoming for a few years the capital of all Hispania. After being conquered by the Arabs in the early 8th century, it was conquered in 801 by Charlemagne's son Louis, who made Barcelona the seat of the Carolingian "Hispanic March" (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona.
Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum (MUHBA); the typically Roman grid plan is still visible today in the layout of the historical centre, the Barri Gòtic (Gothic Quarter). Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, known very formally by the long name of Catedral Basílica Metropolitana de Barcelona, is also sometimes called La Seu, which simply means cathedral (and see, among other things) in Catalan. It is said to have been founded in 343.
The Counts of Barcelona became increasingly independent and expanded their territory to include all of Catalonia, although on 6 July 985, Barcelona was sacked by the army of Almanzor. The sack was so traumatic that most of Barcelona's population was either killed or enslaved. In 1137, Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged in dynastic union by the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV and Petronilla of Aragon, their titles finally borne by only one person when their son Alfonso II of Aragon ascended to the throne in 1162. His territories were later to be known as the Crown of Aragon, which conquered many overseas possessions and ruled the western Mediterranean Sea with outlying territories in Naples and Sicily and as far as Athens in the 13th century. The forging of a dynastic link between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile marked the beginning of Barcelona's decline. The Bank of Barcelona (Taula de canvi), probably the oldest public bank in Europe, was established by the city magistrates in 1401. It originated from necessities of the state, as did the Bank of Venice (1402) and the Bank of Genoa (1407).
In 1970, Barcelona president Agustí Montal decided to merge Condal with another junior club, Atlètic Catalunya, and formed Barcelona Atlètic. Atlètic was founded in 1965 as a result of the merger of two other teams: UE Catalunya de Les Corts (founded in 1918 as Catalunya Sporting Club) and CD Fabra Coats (1926).
In 1990 the team was renamed Barcelona B, but club president Joan Laporta changed the name back to Barcelona Atlètic in 2008. Two years later, his successor Sandro Rosell returned to the previous denomination.
The Barcelona Open, a 50-year-old ATP World Tour 500 Series tennis tournament, is held annually in the facilities of the Real Club de Tenis Barcelona (Barcelona Royal Tennis Club). Also, each Christmas, a swimming race across the port is organized.
The Barcelona Metro, an electrified railway network, has served the city since 1924, when the Gran Metro and Metro Transversal. The original project was devised in time for the 1929 Universal Exhibition which took place in the city. Nowadays it is operated by two different companies: the proper metro lines being part of the Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (or TMB) network, and three metro services integrated in the commuter railway network of Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (or FGC), Catalonia's public railway company.
The development of Barcelona was promoted by two events in 1986: Spanish accession to the European Community, and particularly Barcelona's designation as host city of the 1992 Summer Olympics. The process of urban regeneration has been rapid, often supported through EU funds, and accompanied by a greatly increased international reputation of the city as a tourist destination. The increased cost of housing has led to a slight decline (−16.6%) in the population over the last two decades of the 20th century as many families move out into the suburbs. This decline has been reversed since 2001, as a new wave of immigration (particularly from Latin America and from Morocco) has gathered pace.
The Shopping Night Barcelona (TSNB), founded in 2010, offers shoppers the opportunity to stay out until 1:00am to shop in the Passeig de Gràcia neighborhood at the beginning of December. Many stores offer promotions and sales aimed at attracting holiday shoppers. Additionally, traffic is blocked off so that shoppers can easily move through the streets, enjoying the stores as well as the festive events such as street food booths, local concerts, and other performances. In 2015, TSNB brought 85,000 shoppers to Passeig de Gràcia.
The original Barcelona Principles were predominantly focused on “what not to do” and were created with the public relations industry in mind. Its quantitative methods outweighed qualitative methods and due to a constantly changing industry, standards needed to continuously evolve in order to accurately measure effectiveness.
FC Barcelona is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the largest in the world and second richest football club in the world. It has 74 national honours (46 runners-up) and 16 continental (10 runners-up) trophies, including five UEFA Champions Leagues (3 runners-up) and three FIFA Club World Cups (1 runners-up). Additionally, it is the only men's club in the world to accomplish a sextuple. FC Barcelona also has teams in the Spanish basketball ACB league (Regal FC Barcelona), the handball ASOBAL league (FC Barcelona Handbol), and the roller hockey league (FC Barcelona Hoquei), all of them winners of the highest European competitions. The club's museum is the second most visited in Catalonia. Twice a season, FC Barcelona and cross-town rivals RCD Espanyol contest in the local derby in La Liga, while its basketball section has its own local derby in Liga ACB with nearby Joventut Badalona. Barcelona also has other clubs in lower categories, like CE Europa and UE Sant Andreu.
080 Barcelona is Barcelona's bi-annual Fashion Week in which designers display their most recent collections to the public. Over the course of five days, there are 40 fashion parades that give both buyers and the general public the opportunity to see the latest trends. Currently, internationalization is at the focus of the event in order to present local designers to the world and to ensure Barcelona remains a top city for fashion. 080 gives Barcelona the opportunity to show its culture of fashion to the world.
The modified principles were based on results accumulated from a wide array of communication agencies, organizations, and practitioners over the past five years of applied standards. Modifications included learnings that can be applied with a focus on, “what to do” instead of, “what not to do”. The Barcelona Principles 2.0 integrated all communication field measurement that now reflect the importance of evaluation, insight, and qualitative methods.
In the 18th century, a fortress was built at Montjuïc that overlooked the harbour. In 1794, this fortress was used by the French astronomer Pierre François André Méchain for observations relating to a survey stretching to Dunkirk that provided the official basis of the measurement of a metre. The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. Much of Barcelona was negatively affected by the Napoleonic wars, but the start of industrialisation saw the fortunes of the province improve. Urban planner Ildefons Cerdà designed the large Eixample district in the 1850s when the medieval city walls around Barcelona's old town were torn down.
The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 united the two royal lines. Madrid became the centre of political power whilst the colonisation of the Americas reduced the financial importance (at least in relative terms) of Mediterranean trade. Barcelona was a centre of Catalan separatism, including the Catalan Revolt (1640–52) against Philip IV of Spain. The great plague of 1650–1654 halved the city's population.
The death of Franco in 1975 brought on a period of democratisation throughout Spain. Pressure for change was particularly strong in Barcelona, which considered (with some justification) that it had been punished during nearly forty years of Francoism for its support of the Republican government. Massive, but peaceful, demonstrations on 11 September 1977 assembled over a million people in the streets of Barcelona to call for the restoration of Catalan autonomy. It was granted less than a month later.
The song was composed and produced by Mike Moran and Freddie Mercury. The recording sessions include violins by Homi Kanga and Laurie Lewis, cello by Deborah Ann Johnston, horn by Barry Castle and percussion by Frank Ricotti. "Barcelona" was chosen to be the anthem of 1992 Olympics in Spain, but Mercury died less than seven months before the games. It was, however, featured at the opening ceremony, and it was used as the title music to the BBC's coverage of the 1992 Summer Olympics. The music video was filmed at the world's largest nightclub, Ku, nowadays named Privilege in Ibiza.
In 2015 industry leaders and the original developers gathered together to modify the original principles in order to make them more reflective of the current communication industry, as the original Barcelona Principles were "never intended to be a final or complete solution.” The goal of the working group was to ensure that the Barcelona Principles could continue to act as a baseline for professionals.
The station Tetuan is served by Barcelona Metro line L2 (purple).
Theatre in Barcelona