Born–Landé equation - Born Exponent

The Born exponent is typically between 5 and 12. Approximate experimental values are listed below:

Mercat del Born - Born "District"

In recent years, the area immediately surrounding the market has been referred to as "el Born" or the Castilian variant "el Borne". A heavily gentrified area considered to be south of Carrer de la Princesa, it is full of restaurants, bar, and some small shops with many expatriates both living and socializing there. Despite this colloquial name given to the area (which is often applied to the entire district), it is still officially called la Ribera or Sant Pere, Santa Caterina i la Ribera.

Born rigidity - Born rigid motions

A classification of allowed, in particular rotational, Born rigid motions in flat Minkowski spacetime was given by Herglotz, which was also studied by Friedrich Kottler (1912, 1914), Georges Lemaître (1924), Adriaan Fokker (1940), George Salzmann & Abraham H. Taub (1954). Herglotz pointed out that a continuum is moving as a rigid body when the world lines of its points are equidistant curves in. The resulting worldlines can be split into two classes:

Born Feinkost - Born-Senf-Museum

Born Feinkost GmbH runs a mustard shop and museum at the Wenigemarkt in Erfurt, showing the history of mustard and the brand as well as selling mustard specialties and freshly draught (draft) mustard.

Born rigidity - Stresses and Born rigidity

It was shown by Herglotz (1911), that a relativistic theory of elasticity can be based on the assumption, that stresses arise when the condition of Born rigidity is broken.

Born approximation - Distorted-wave Born approximation

Other applications include bremsstrahlung and the photoelectric effect. For a charged-particle-induced direct nuclear reaction, the procedure is used twice. There are similar methods that do not use the Born approximations. In condensed-matter research, DWBA is used to analyze grazing-incidence small-angle scattering.

Born approximation - Distorted-wave Born approximation

The Born approximation is simplest when the incident waves are plane waves. That is, the scatterer is treated as a perturbation to free space or to a homogeneous medium.

Born rigidity - Stresses and Born rigidity

An example of breaking Born rigidity is the Ehrenfest paradox: Even though the state of uniform circular motion of a body is among the allowed Born rigid motions of class B, a body cannot be brought from any other state of motion into uniform circular motion without breaking the condition of Born rigidity during the phase in which the body undergoes various accelerations. But if this phase is over and the centripetal acceleration becomes constant, the body can be uniformly rotating in agreement with Born rigidity. Likewise, if it is now in uniform circular motion, this state cannot be changed without again breaking the Born rigidity of the body.

Born rigidity - Stresses and Born rigidity

Another example is Bell's spaceship paradox: If the endpoints of a body are accelerated with constant proper accelerations in rectilinear direction, then the leading endpoint must have a lower proper acceleration in order to leave the proper length constant so that Born rigidity is satisfied. It will also exhibit an increasing Lorentz contraction in an external inertial frame, that is, in the external frame the endpoints of the body are not accelerating simultaneously. However, if a different acceleration profile is chosen by which the endpoints of the body are simultaneously accelerated with same proper acceleration as seen in the external inertial frame, its Born rigidity will be broken, because constant length in the external frame implies increasing proper length in a comoving frame due to relativity of simultaneity. In this case, a fragile thread spanned between two rockets will experience stresses (which are called Herglotz-Dewan-Beran stresses ) and will consequently break.

Born approximation - Distorted-wave Born approximation

In the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), the incident waves are solutions to a part V^1 of the problem V=V^1 + V^2 that is treated by some other method, either analytical or numerical. The interaction of interest V is treated as a perturbation V^2 to some system V^1 that can be solved by some other method. For nuclear reactions, numerical optical model waves are used. For scattering of charged particles by charged particles, analytic solutions for coulomb scattering are used. This gives the non-Born preliminary equation

Born This Way Foundation - Born Brave Nation

Gaga announced in May 2012 that the "Born Brave Bus" would follow her on tour as a youth drop-in center as an initiative against bullying and homophobia. In June 2012, "Born Brave" community and school groups, these localized groups dedicate to making positive change where they live. Born Brave Nation, a name chosen by the BTWF supporters, was requesting founding members in July 2012 but had not yet launched. The Born Brave Nation would later be headed by youths "dedicated to building a kinder, braver world in their homes, schools, and communities" and appears to accept anyone only up to the age of 100 years as a founder, teacher, student or supporter.

Born This Way Foundation - Born Brave Nation

In August 2012 the BTWF launched a national youth advisory board, 24 young people ages 17–23 who will represent other young people. They initially attended a three-day summit at Paramount Pictures in Los Angeles, where they held discussions with youth advocate and journalist Anne Collier, and Maya Enista Smith, the CEO of Mobilize.org. During the summit the board provided feedback on upcoming programs and initiatives of the BTWF, "helping to guide the Foundation’s plan for the coming year." The youth advisory board will serve as ambassadors to "Born Brave Nation."

Born series - Born series for T-matrix

The Born series can also be written for other scattering quantities like the T-matrix which is closely related to the scattering amplitude. Iterating Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix we get :For the T-matrix G_0 stands only for retarded Green's operator. The standing wave Green's operator would give the K-matrix instead.

Born coordinates - Transforming to the Born chart

To obtain the Born chart, we straighten out the helical world lines of the Langevin observers using the simple coordinate transformation :The new line element is :Notice the "cross-terms" involving, which show that the Born chart is not an orthogonal coordinate chart. The Born coordinates are also sometimes referred to as rotating cylindrical coordinates.

Born coordinates - Transforming to the Born chart

Needless to say, in the process of "unwinding" the world lines of the Langevin observers, which appear as helices in the cylindrical chart, we "wound up" the world lines of the static observers, which now appear as helices in the Born chart! Note too that, like the Langevin frame, the Born chart is only defined on the region 0 < r < 1/ω.

Born series - Born series for scattering states

The Born series for the scattering states reads :It can be derived by iterating the Lippmann–Schwinger equation :Note that the Green's operator G_0 for a free particle can be retarded/advanced or standing wave operator for retarded advanced or standing wave scattering states. The first iteration is obtained by replacing the full scattering solution with free particle wave function on the right hand side of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and it gives the first Born approximation. The second iteration substitutes the first Born approximation in the right hand side and the result is called the second Born approximation. In general the n-th Born approximation takes n-terms of the series into account. The second Born approximation is sometimes used, when the first Born approximation vanishes, but the higher terms are rarely used. The Born series can formally be summed as geometric series with the common ratio equal to the operator G_0 V, giving the formal solution to Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the form :

Nicolas Born - Nicolas Born revival in 2004

Twenty five years after his death, his youngest daughter, Katharina Born reedited an almost complete and critical collection of his poems, including several unpublished works: "Nicolas Born - Gedichte" (Wallstein 2004). For the book, Born received, (for the first time posthumously), the renowned Peter-Huchel-Preis (2005). After the big success of the poetry collection and many positive reviews and reactions, a collection of Born's correspondence is planned for Spring 2007.

Born Slippy .NUXX - Born Slippy .NUXX 2003

"Born Slippy .NUXX 2003" is a version of "Born Slippy .NUXX" re-released by Underworld to promote the album 1992–2002, originally released in 2003. New remixes were commissioned for this release, along with a new video, compiled by Danny Boyle of clips from his film Trainspotting.

Born HIV Free - Born HIV Free Campaign

By focusing on a world where virtually all children can be BORN HIV FREE, the campaign draws attention to one of the many ambitious and realizable goals the world can accomplish if it continues to increase investments in global health. By signing up on “the virtual wall of support” people can signal to their country’s government that they approve of the use of public resources to fight these global pandemics.