Primitive Calculators

The Primitive Calculators are an Australian post-punk band, formed in Melbourne, Victoria in 1978. Described by British critic Everett True as sounding like "a very aggressive Suicide", the band is known for its mix of harsh guitar noise, fast and repetitive drum machine beats, and abrasive synthesizers. Along with fellow Melbourne act Whirlywirld, the Primitive Calculators played a leading role in founding the experimental Little Band Scene in the late 1970s, wherein both bands and numerous other acts formed large numbers of short-lived bands by frequently swapping members and inviting non-musicians to join in at live shows.

HP calculators - Characteristics

HP calculators are well known for their use of Reverse Polish Notation (RPN).

Oxford Calculators - John Dumbleton

John Dumbleton became a member of the calculators in 1338-39. After becoming a member, he left the calculators for a brief period of time to study theology in Paris in 1345-47. After his study there he returned to his work with the calculators in 1347-48. One of his main pieces of work, Summa logicae et philosophiae naturalis, focused on explaining the natural world in a coherent and realistic manner, unlike some of his colleagues, claiming that they were making light of serious endeavors.

Primitive Calculators - Second era

The Primitive Calculators' album was reissued on CD by Chapter Music in 2004, with the inclusion of extra tracks from related projects (their first band The Moths from 1978 and other live recordings from 1979). In March 2007, Chapter Music released "Primitive Calculators and Friends, 1979 to 1982", a CD that contained the only studio recordings of the band (the 7" single from 1979), the "Little Band" single, also from 1979, and live tracks from Little Band nights. It also contained other recordings from bands the members formed after 1980, such as a song called "Zye Ye Ye" (recorded in London in 1981 with Olsen and Murphy), and bands formed after the return of some of the band members to Australia from Europe, in 1982.

Primitive Calculators - Second era

In 2016, it Records released 'On Drugs', a single from Primitive Calculators forthcoming album by the same name. On Drugs, a boogie-rock soul inspired track, focused around the central character, Stuart Grant, signalled a change in the band's direction. The album is set for release in 2018.

HP calculators - Characteristics

Programmable HP calculators allow users to create their own programs.

Order of operations - Calculators

Chain input expects two operands and an operator. When the next operator is pressed, the expression is immediately evaluated and the answer becomes the left hand of the next operator. Advanced calculators allow entry of the whole expression, grouped as necessary, and evaluates only when the user uses the equals sign.

Order of operations - Calculators

Different calculators follow different orders of operations. Many simple calculators without a stack implement chain input working left to right without any priority given to different operators, for example typing : yields 9, while more sophisticated calculators will use a more standard priority, for example typing : yields 7.

Retirement - Calculators

Many individuals use "retirement calculators" on the Internet to determine the proportion of their pay they should be saving in a tax advantaged-plan (e.g., IRA or 401-K in the US, RRSP in Canada, personal pension in the UK, superannuation in Australia). After expenses and any taxes, a reasonable (though arguably pessimistic) long-term assumption for a safe real rate of return is zero. So in real terms, interest does not help the savings grow. Each year of work must pay its share of a year of retirement. For someone planning to work for 40 years and be retired for 20 years, each year of work pays for itself and for half a year of retirement. Hence, 33.33% of pay must be saved, and 66.67% can be spent when earned. After 40 years of saving 33.33% of pay, we have accumulated assets of 13.33 years of pay, as in the graph. In the graph to the right, the lines are straight, which is appropriate given the assumption of a zero real investment return.

Retirement - Calculators

For more complicated situations, there are several online retirement calculators on the Internet. Many retirement calculators project how much an investor needs to save, and for how long, to provide a certain level of retirement expenditures. Some retirement calculators, appropriate for safe investments, assume a constant, unvarying rate of return. Monte Carlo retirement calculators take volatility into account and project the probability that a particular plan of retirement savings, investments, and expenditures will outlast the retiree. Retirement calculators vary in the extent to which they take taxes, social security, pensions, and other sources of retirement income and expenditures into account.

Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems - Calculators

The functionality of calculator ICs increased at a rapid pace and Roberts was designing and producing new models. The MITS 7400 scientific and engineering calculator was introduced in December 1972. It featured trigonometric functions, polar to rectangular conversion, two memories, and up to a seven-level stack. A kit with a three-level stack was $299.95 and an assembled unit with a seven-level stack was $419.95. The next month the Series 1200 four-function pocket calculators were announced. The six-digit model was $59.95 and the twelve-digit model was $99.95.

Electronika - Calculators

The Electronika brand is now used by Novosibirsk RPN programmable calculators Electronika MK-152 (ru:Электроника МК-152) and Electronika MK-161 (ru:Электроника МК-161).

HP calculators

HP calculators are various calculators manufactured by the Hewlett-Packard company over the years.

Ed Roberts (computer engineer) - Calculators

The monthly sales reached $100,000 in March 1973, and MITS moved to a larger building with 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of space. In 1973, MITS was selling every calculator that they could make, and 110 employees worked in two shifts assembling them. The functionality of calculator integrated circuits increased at a rapid pace and Roberts was designing and producing new models. The popularity of electronic calculators drew the traditional office equipment companies and the semiconductor companies into the market. In September 1972, Texas Instruments (TI) introduced the TI-2500 portable four-function calculator that sold for $120. The larger companies could sell below cost to win market share. By early 1974, Ed Roberts found that he could purchase a calculator in a retail store for less than his cost of materials. MITS was now $300,000 in debt, and Roberts was looking for a new hit product.

Oxford Calculators - Richard Swineshead

Richard Swineshead was also an English mathematician, logician, and natural philosopher. The sixteenth-century polymath Girolamo Cardano placed him in the top-ten intellects of all time, alongside Archimedes, Aristotle, and Euclid. He became a member of the Oxford calculators in 1344. His main work was a series of treatises written in 1350. This work earned him the title of "The Calculator". His treatises were named Liber Calculationum, which means "Book of Calculations". His book dealt in exhaustive detail with quantitative physics and he had over fifty variations of Bradwardine's law.

Oxford Calculators

The Oxford Calculators were a group of 14th-century thinkers, almost all associated with Merton College, Oxford; for this reason they were dubbed "The Merton School". These men took a strikingly logico-mathematical approach to philosophical problems. The key "calculators", writing in the second quarter of the 14th century, were Thomas Bradwardine, William Heytesbury, Richard Swineshead and John Dumbleton. These men built on the slightly earlier work of Walter Burley and Gerard of Brussels.

Primitive Calculators - First era

The Primitive Calculators played their last gig in March 1980, though their self-titled live album came out in the early 1980s. The band reformed briefly in 1986 to perform a live version of their song "Pumping Ugly Muscle" in the Richard Lowenstein film Dogs In Space (they later appeared in Lowenstein's 2009 documentary "We're Livin' on Dog Food").

Fowler Calculators

Fowler Calculators Ltd was a manufacturer of slide rules and other scientific and mathematical instruments, based in Manchester, England and founded by William Henry Fowler.