CHIP was the original board, mostly targeting hobbyists. The system is built around the Allwinner R8 SoC processor, which integrates an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU (based on ARM architecture V7-A) and peripherals, such as Graphic Engine, UART, SPI, USB ports, CIR, CMOS Sensor Interface and LCD controller. The CPU is also accompanied by a NEON SIMD coprocessor and has RCT JAVA-Accelerations to optimize just-in-time (JIT) and dynamic adaptive compilation (DAC).
CHIP was upgraded in April 2017 in anticipation of the CHIP Pro to "share a large number of the same components".
ChIP is a powerful method to selectively enrich for DNA sequences bound by a particular protein in living cells. However, the widespread use of this method has been limited by the lack of a sufficiently robust method to identify all of the enriched DNA sequences. The ChIP process enriches specific crosslinked DNA-protein complexes using an antibody against the protein of interest. For a good description of the ChIP wet lab protocol see ChIP-on-chip. Oligonucleotide adaptors are then added to the small stretches of DNA that were bound to the protein of interest to enable massively parallel sequencing.
The CHIP is 60 mm × 40 mm in size.
Sharpness of the cutting tool does not usually define the type of chip, but rather the quality of the chip, and the clear distinctions between types. A blunt tool produces a degenerate chip that is large, torn and varies from one means of formation to another, often leaving behind a poor quality surface where this means changes.
To attach the flip chip into a circuit, the chip is inverted to bring the solder dots down onto connectors on the underlying electronics or circuit board. The solder is then re-melted to produce an electrical connection, typically using a Thermosonic bonding or alternatively reflow solder process. This also leaves a small space between the chip's circuitry and the underlying mounting. In most cases an electrically-insulating adhesive is then "underfilled" to provide a stronger mechanical connection, provide a heat bridge, and to ensure the solder joints are not stressed due to differential heating of the chip and the rest of the system. The underfill distributes the thermal expansion mismatch between the chip and the board, preventing stress concentration in the solder joints which would lead to premature failure.
Processing a flip chip is similar to conventional IC fabrication, with a few additional steps. Near the end of the manufacturing process, the attachment pads are metalized to make them more receptive to solder. This typically consists of several treatments. A small dot of solder is then deposited on each metalized pad. The chips are then cut out of the wafer as normal.
The first three chip types are the original characterisation, by Dr. Norman Franz. The type of chip that forms depends on many factors, of both tool and material. In general, main factors are the angle formed by the edge faces of the tool and also the angle at which this is presented to the surface.
CHIP Pro is similar to the original CHIP board, but uses the newer GR8 version of the chip. It is a system in package (SiP) made by Next Thing Co. It features a 1 GHz Allwinner R8 ARMv7 Cortex-A8 processor with NEON SIMD extensions and a Mali-400 GPU. 256 MB of Nanya Technology DDR3 SDRAM is combined with the R8 SoC into a 14 mm × 14 mm, 0.8 mm-pitch 252-ball FBGA package, simplifying the routing of connections. Instead of having two dual-line 40-pin sockets as on CHIP, it implements castellated edges where the pin holes are designed and optimized to embed to another board with SMT. Most of the CHIP's hardware features are also included in this model.
CHIP Online is the independent web portal of the CHIP brand. It is one of the most-visited media portals in the German language area, providing hardware and software tests and price comparisons, as well as a large downloading and a community portal. , it is a top 30 site in Germany according to Alexa traffic rankings. CHIP Online is operated by CHIP Digital GmbH.
A chip pact enacted in 1986 was designed to help the United States compete with Japanese manufacturers. However, it had unintended consequences. The pact called for Japanese companies to stop selling chips below cost, or dumping, which led to the companies producing and exporting fewer chips, the root cause of the dumping. American companies did not reenter the market as expected due to the high cost of production and risk.
Few details were available in regard to CHIP's would-be successor or successors except it would have used Next Thing's own SiP GR8 instead of Allwinner's original R8. In addition to feature-sharing with CHIP Pro, the company wanted to "take advantage of CHIP Pro's much more stable supply chain" in order to address the uneasiness in its user base about the future of the product. In responding to user concerns, Next Thing also disclosed that more than one successor product line was in the works.
Some laboratories have started collaborating with artists or directly producing books and exhibits with the micrographs of these chips. Such is the case of Harvard chemist George Whitesides, who collaborated with pioneer photographer Felice Frankel to publish On the Surface of Things, a highly praised photography book on experiments from (mostly) the Whitesides lab. Also, the laboratory of Albert Folch (who, perhaps not coincidentally, works in BioMEMS, the same field as George Whitesides) at the University of Washington's Bioengineering Dept. has a highly popular online gallery with more than 1,700 free BioMEMS-related chip art micrographs and has already produced three art exhibits in the Seattle area, with online sales.
Chips sold in markets were usually sold in tins or scooped out of storefront glass bins and delivered by horse and wagon. Early potato chip bags were wax paper with the ends ironed or stapled together. At first, potato chips were packaged in barrels or tins, which left chips at the bottom stale and crumbled.
The mass production of these works of art as parasites on the body of a commercial IC goes unnoticed by most observers and is discouraged by semiconductor corporations, primarily from the fear that the presence of the artwork (which is clearly unneeded) will interfere with some necessary function in the chip or design flow.
Often this creative artist's instinct extends to the inclusion of small pictures or icons. These may be images of significance to the designers, comments related to the chip's function, inside jokes, or even satirical references. Because of the difficulty in verifying their existence, chip art has also been the subject of online hoaxes (e.g. the never-seen "bill sux" comment on a Pentium chip—the reputed "photo" showing the inscription is a hoax ).
A plastic-leaded chip carrier (PLCC) has a rectangular plastic housing. It is a reduced cost evolution of the ceramic leadless chip carrier (CLCC).
A premolded PLCC was originally released in 1976, but did not see much market adoption. Texas Instruments later released a postmolded variant that was soon adopted by most major semiconductor companies. The JEDEC trade group started a task force in 1981 to categorize PLCCs, with the MO-047 standard released in 1984 for square packages and the MO-052 standard released in 1985 for rectangular packages. The PLCC utilizes a "J"-lead with pin spacings of 0.05" (1.27 mm). The metal strip forming the lead is wrapped around and under the edge of the package, resembling the letter J in cross-section. Lead counts range from 20 to 84. PLCC packages can be square or rectangular. Body widths range from 0.35" to 1.15". The PLCC “J” Lead configuration requires less board space versus equivalent gull leaded components, which have flat leads that extend out perpendicularly to the narrow edge of the package. The PLCC is preferred over DIP style chip carriers when lead counts exceed 40 pins due to the PLCC's more efficient use of board surface area.
PocketCHIP comes loaded with a special edition of CHIP OS that includes the DIP's driver and a couple of additional applications, including a special version of video game console virtual machine Pico-8, a fully functional Linux terminal, a file browser, a terminal based web browser called surf, and modular synthesizer Sunvox.
Pocket CHIP includes a CHIP, a case with a 4.3 inch 480×272 pixel resistive touchscreen, a clicky keyboard, GPIO headers on the top of the device, and GPIO soldering pads inside of the injection mold case. A 5-hour battery is included. Following DIP specifications, the CHIP snaps into the case with no "screws or glues" creating a portable computer. On the lower right corner of the Pocket CHIP is a hexagonal hole that takes a standard #2 HB pencil. Inserting the pencil creates a stand that allows the Pocket CHIP to stand upright on a desk. Likewise, on the lower left is a circular hole for a pen.