Cisco IOS, formally the Cisco Internetwork Operating System, is a family of network operating systems used on many Cisco Systems network switches, routers, wireless controllers and wireless access points. Earlier, Cisco switches ran CatOS. Cisco IOS is a package of routing, switching, internetworking and telecommunications functions integrated into a multitasking operating system. Although the IOS code base includes a cooperative multitasking kernel, most IOS features have been ported to other kernels such as QNX and Linux for use in Cisco products. Cisco Catalyst products run IOS or a Linux-derived version called Cisco IOS XE. It was originally called XDI by the switching company Crescendo Communications, Inc. Cisco renamed it to CatOS when they acquired Crescendo and later still to Cisco IOS as the operating system was extended to other Cisco products. The newer Catalyst 9000 family uses the Cisco IOS XE operating system.
In late 2011, the band was signed by Albert Productions, the home of major Australian acts such as AC/DC and Megan Washington—the label described San Cisco's sound as "rough, low-fi garage pop" mixed with "bright catchy hooks". However, in September 2012, the band left Albert Productions to join the roster of United States (US) label, Fat Possum Records—a deal that was made in partnership with RCA Records—for the release of its debut album San Cisco in all territories, except for Australia, on 23 November 2012; in Australia, the band made the decision to release the album, together with the singles "Wild Things" and "Fred Astaire", through Island City Records.
San Cisco recorded a cover version of the Daft Punk song "Get Lucky" for the "Like A Version" segment of national Australian radio station Triple J on 30 May 2013. The band uses slap bass and bongo drums for their rendition and also incorporate the N*E*R*D song "Hypnotize U".
Cisco Certified Technicians have the skills to diagnose, restore, repair, and replace critical Cisco networking and system devices at customer sites. Technicians work closely with the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) to quickly and efficiently resolve support incidents.
Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician represents the lowest level of certification which covers basic networking knowledge. Until its introduction, CCNA represented the first level of the certification program. It has appropriate use for an entry-level network support position. CCENT certified staff can install, manage and troubleshoot a small enterprise network, including basic network security. The first step towards a CCNA certification must start by having a CCENT.
In 2017, Cisco introduced new ICND1 and ICND2 exams (needed for the new CCNA Routing and Switching). ICND1: 100-105 (Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 v3.0) became the new exam required for CCENT. With this change, CCENT became a sufficient pre-requirement for CCNA Security, CCNA Voice and CCNA Wireless.
It is probable, but not clear, that Pancho or Cisco were originally named after the famous Mexican revolutionary general whose nom de guerre was Francisco "Pancho" Villa.
"Cisco" and "Pancho" are both nicknames given to men whose Spanish name is Francisco, which in English is "Francis".
In September 1993, Cisco Systems acquired Crescendo Communications, marking Cisco’s first acquisition and foray into the switching market. Ullal joined Cisco and began work on the Cisco Catalyst switching business, which grew from its beginning, in 1993, to a $5 billion business in 2000. As vice president and general manager of LAN switching in the Enterprise group, Ullal was responsible for unified communications, IP telephony, content networking and policy networking. She oversaw some 20 mergers and acquisitions for Cisco in the enterprise sector.
Enterprise-level Cisco routers are configurable using the Cisco IOS command line, rather than a web management interface.
Bates joined Cisco in 1996. He was employed at Cisco for more than 14 years and rose to senior vice president and general manager, heading up the enterprise, commercial and small business divisions.
Part of the Cisco Networking Academy the Network and Programing course at J.A.B.C.C. begins with Business Information Technology and Web Design, one year foundations course for this program. Students learn basic computer skills as well as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, and Web design. During the next two years, this program delivers web-based content, online assessment, student performance tracking, and preparation for industry standard certifications such as CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate). CCNA professionals can install, configure and operate LAN, WAN and dial access services. College credit can be earned by taking this program.
In 1984, Bosack co-founded Cisco Systems with his then partner (and now ex-wife) Sandy Lerner. Their aim was to commercialize the Advanced Gateway Server. The Advanced Gateway Server was a revised version of the Stanford router built by William Yeager and Andy Bechtolsheim. Bosack and Lerner designed and built routers in their house, and experimented using Stanford's network. Initially, Bosack and Lerner went to Stanford with a proposition to start building and selling the routers, but the school refused. It was then that they founded their own company, and named it "Cisco," taken from the name of nearby San Francisco. It is widely reported that Lerner and Bosack designed the first router so that they could connect the incompatible computer systems of the Stanford offices they were working in so that they could send letters to each other. However, this is an untrue legend.
Some Cisco WLAN access points and VoIP phones supported a proprietary form of PoE many years before there was an IEEE standard for delivering PoE. Cisco's original PoE implementation is not software upgradeable to the IEEE 802.3af standard. Cisco's original PoE equipment is capable of delivering up to 10 W per port. The amount of power to be delivered is negotiated between the endpoint and the Cisco switch based on a power value that was added to the Cisco proprietary Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). CDP is also responsible for dynamically communicating the Voice VLAN value from the Cisco switch to the Cisco VoIP Phone.
In 1984, while working as director of computer facilities for the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, Lerner co-founded Cisco Systems with her then-partner and now-former husband Len Bosack. Lerner and Bosack worked with Stanford students and faculty on a project to better connect all of the school's computer systems. They later adapted software used at Stanford into what would become the foundation for Cisco IOS.
WikiLeaks said on 19 March 2017 on Twitter that the "CIA was secretly exploiting" a vulnerability in a huge range of Cisco router models discovered thanks to the Vault 7 documents. The CIA had learned more than a year ago how to exploit flaws in Cisco's widely used internet switches, which direct electronic traffic, to enable eavesdropping. Cisco quickly reassigned staff from other projects to turn their focus solely on analyzing the attack and to figure out how the CIA hacking worked, so they could help customers patch their systems and prevent criminal hackers or spies from using similar methods.
Lerner and Bosack brought in John Morgridge to be the third CEO of Cisco in 1988. On August 28, 1990, Lerner was fired; upon hearing the news, Bosack resigned in solidarity. The two sold all of their stock for $170 million and retired from Cisco. Lerner and Bosack divorced in the early 1990s.
In 2004, Calderoni accepted a position with Cisco Systems. Calderoni's work at Cisco centered on sales and services and for the decision support model on Cisco investments. As of 2007, Calderoni became CFO of Cisco.
Volpi joined Cisco Systems in 1994 in the nascent business development group. He was promoted to leading acquisitions at Cisco starting in April 1996. As Chief Strategy Officer for the company he led corporate strategy, business development, and strategic alliances. During his tenure, he and his team were responsible for the acquisition of over 70 companies in seven years, including a nearly $7 Billion acquisition of Scientific Atlanta. Their acquisition strategy of Volpi and his team at Cisco is widely regarded as a model for technology mergers and acquisitions. he was promoted to the chief strategy office working for CEO John Chambers until 2000. Some press speculated he was heir apparent to Chambers.
The following table lists the default administrative distances for various routing protocols used on Cisco routers.