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List of Keith Olbermann's special comments - Campaign comments

In October 2008, two weeks before the presidential election, Olbermann announced that he would briefly transform his special comments into a nightly feature, claiming that "If [the McCain campaign is] going to pile it on for the next two weeks, I'm going to have to throw it back." After numerous people observed that daily comments would render the term "special" meaningless, Olbermann christened the two weeks' comments as campaign comments. He also noted that the campaign comments would be less formal than his special comments, and "not necessarily just monologues, either. Sound Bites now acceptable."

List of Keith Olbermann's special comments - Quick comments

Besides his special comments, Olbermann has, since January 11, 2010, also used "Quick Comments" to discuss news stories. It is usually reserved for topics which are not as impactful on American life as those which are covered in his Special Comments, but it is often used to bring attention to natural disaster crises around the country.

Comments section - History

In February 2019, YouTube began deleting and demonetizing channels and videos based on their comments section. This came after Youtuber "MattsWhatItIs" made a video exposing a ring of videos exploiting minors. He explained that videos featuring minors would have comments sections made up mostly of people making explicit and suggestive comments about those featured in the video and, in some cases, sharing links to child pornography. After advertisers began pulling ads off of the site, Youtube began deleting and demonetizing videos deemed "violating terms and services".

Timed comments

Timed comments differ from annotations, captions, and subtitles in an important respect: they can be added by viewers, not just video creators, and they include the identity of the person adding the comment.

Timed comments

Timed comments are a feature offered by some audio and video players and websites where people can add comments associated with specific times in an audio or video. These comments are then displayed in the player when that time is reached while playing the audio or video.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

Good moderation of news websites is expensive. However, most news sites do moderate. Studies of newspaper website and blog comments have shown incivility to be present in as many as 25% of comments. Most publishers and writers have been found to tolerate and accept incivility in the comments section. This is due to the fact that incivility is subjective, and to remove those comments can lead to accusations of bias and censorship.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

Comments sections have often been known for containing highly sexist and misogynistic statements. In a study involving feminist articles on several news websites, it was found that many were not supportive or contributing to the feminist subject. Many comments were found to be intentionally combative, and considered some form of Internet troll s.

Comments section - History

While today comments sections are common, newspapers were hesitant to add them at first. In the late 2000s, comments sections were rapidly added to news sites, between 2007 and 2008 there was a 42% growth in the number of top circulating news sites with comments sections. In 2008, 75% of the top 100 most circulated newspapers had comments sections. In 2010, The American Journalism Review stated that news sites should not have anonymous comments sections. Following that statement Reuters, ESPN, The Huffington Post, Popular Science, Sporting News, and USA Today either made comments gated or removed them.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

In February 2017, Google-founded technology incubator Jigsaw unveiled a tool based on artificial intelligence, called Perspective API, to identify toxic comments in online forums.

Comments section - History

The first online website to offer a comments section was Open Diary, which added reader comments shortly after its launch in October 1998. Readers of blog posts on the site were able to post public or private comments to the authors directly on the page. The history of comment sections on news articles started in 1998 with The Rocky Mountain News, as they were one of the first newspapers to add online comments on the same page.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

Comments section across the internet have gained a reputation for being rude, argumentative, and being generally described as "toxic". Toxic comments refer to rude, disrespectful, or unreasonable comments that are likely to make one leave a discussion. Comments sections have been known for frequent arguing and disagreements. The reason for this may be due to the fact that those with strongly-held beliefs are more likely to comment and reply to others when the comments section is widely opposed to them. Likewise, users tend to stay silent when their views are widely supported. In addition to this, people are more likely to comment on news articles when they are more personally affected. Participation in comments in usually low in frequency, as most will only comment on articles twice, and are more likely to comment on issues that have a determinable end.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

In September 2017, Disqus, a company that provides comment-hosting services, analysed over 92 million comments written by 2 million people over 16 months, on about 7,000 forums that used its service, and concluded that 25% of all commenters made at least one toxic comment. The study was carried out using Google's Perspective API. In the United States, the time of the day at which maximum proportion of comments were toxic, was 3 am. However, Engadget denounced the underlying API bringing attention to its discriminatory classifications - phrases like "I am a gay black woman" were scored as 87% toxic. It described the algorithm as "sexist, racist and ableist".

Comments section - Types

Non-gated comment sections don’t require users to provide information before posting. This lack of an entry barrier can allow more people to post and potentially lead to a discussion with more viewpoints covered. This anonymity, however, is believed by some to lead to uncivil behavior and a higher likelihood of seeing or experiencing verbal aggression in the comments. In response to this, both the Illinois and New York State senates have considered bills to limit non-gated comment sections. The Illinois bill would have incentivized websites to gate their comments requiring users to provide their real name, a home address and a confirmed IP address. The New York Bill would have made websites remove anonymous commenting.

Comments section

The comments section is a feature of online blogs and news websites in which the publishers invite the audience to comment on the published content. This is a continuation of the older practice of publishing letters to the editor. Despite this, comments sections can be used for more discussion between readers.

Comments section - Types

There are two types of comment sections, gated and non-gated. Gated comments sections require users to give the website some information before they can post a comment. Many news websites such as The New York Times and most social media websites are gated, as users have to log in and post under a username that identifies them. Comments sections can also be accessed in different ways, either directly attached to an article or video, or through a separate web page. Websites such as The New York Times found that user participation increased when the comments section was located directly below.

Comments section - Behavior and moderation

If a comment section is moderated it is typically done in any one of the three ways: post-moderation, pre-moderation, or through a flagging system. Comments that are post-moderated are checked after they’ve been posted. Pre-moderated comments are checked before they are made publicly visible. Comments that are moderated with a flagging system can be marked or ‘flagged’ by other users for official website moderators to look at. In some cases, both the publishers and users can both offer varying degrees of moderation in comments sections, through voting systems and reporting options.

Request for Comments

Outside of the Internet community, Requests for Comments have often been published in U.S. Federal government work, such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Comments by Celebs - Background

Diamond and Kramer are alumnae of Syracuse University, where they met and were in the same sorority. They bonded through a group chat which discussed Keeping Up with the Kardashians. Diamond holds a bachelor's degree in communications and rhetorical studies, while Kramer holds a Bachelors in psychology. At the time the account started, Diamond was pursuing a Masters in Social Work at Columbia University and Kramer was also planning on attending graduate school, but after the account's popularity grew, they deferred to pursue Comments by Celebs full-time. Both women are Jewish.

Comments by Celebs - Background

Their account has also become a source of entertainment news due to the fact that they capture and instantly release information about which celebrities are interacting with one another. Because of this, they have built relationships with several entertainment reporters and celebrities, and many gossip bloggers have featured work from the accounts. To maintain positive relationships with celebrities, they request permission to post comments that may be considered questionable. As a result of the popularity, they started three spinoff accounts with the handles @CommentsByBravo, @CommentsByBachelor, @CommentsByAthletes, and @CommentsByInfluencers.

Reading the Comments - Synopsis

The book has eight chapters and gives an overview of comments on the Internet. Reagle covers the concept of Internet anonymity and references Plato's Ring of Gyges story, comparing the ring's power of invisibility to the ability to remain seemingly anonymous on the Internet. Topics covered in the book include the manipulation of online reviews in locations like Yelp, trolling, and online threats of rape and violence.