Morphological comparison uses the suffixes -er (the "comparative") and -est (the "superlative"). These inflections are of Germanic origin and are cognate with the Latin suffixes -ior and -issimus and Ancient Greek -īōn and -istos. They are typically added to shorter words, words of Anglo-Saxon origin, and borrowed words which have been fully assimilated into the English vocabulary. Usually the words which take these inflections have fewer than three syllables.
The second system of comparison in English appends the grammatical particles "more" and "most", themselves the irregular comparatives of "many" and "much", to the adjective or adverb being modified. This series can be compared to a system containing the diminutives "less" and "least".
Academically, comparison is used between things like economic and political systems. Political scientist and historian Benedict Anderson has cautioned against use of comparisons without considering the relevant framework of things being compared:
"It is important to recognise that comparison is not a method or even an academic technique; rather, it is a discursive strategy. There are a few important points to bear in mind when one wants to make a comparison. First of all, one has to decide, in any given work, whether one is mainly after similarities or differences. It is very difficult, for example, to say, let alone prove, that Japan and China or Korea are basically similar or basically different. Either case could be made, depending on one's angle of vision, one's framework, and the conclusions towards which one intends to move."
The primary use of comparison in literature is with the simile, a figure of speech that directly compares two things. Similes are a form of metaphor that explicitly use connecting words (such as like, as, so, than, or various verbs such as resemble), though these specific words are not always necessary. While similes are mainly used in forms of poetry that compare the inanimate and the living, there are also terms in which similes are used for humorous purposes of comparison. A number of literary works have commented negatively on the practice of comparison. For example, 15th century English poet John Lydgate wrote "[o]dyous of olde been comparsionis", which was reflected by many later writers, such as William Shakespeare, who included the line in Much Ado About Nothing, "comparisons are odious". Miguel de Cervantes, in a passage in Don Quixote, wrote, "[i]s it possible your pragmatical worship should not know that the comparisons made between wit and wit, courage and courage, beauty and beauty, birth and birth, are always odious and ill taken?"
The following is a comparison of notable structured storage systems.
Visualization tools have also been developed to allows the firearms examiner to verify the degree of similarity between any two tool-marks in question. These are designed to simulate the operation of the comparison microscope but is capable of rendering a 2D view of the 3D surfaces in a manner similar to that of the conventional comparison microscope.
Since, ballistic identification has benefited from a long series of structural, scientific and technological advances, law enforcement agencies have established forensic laboratories and researchers have learned much more about how to match bullets and cartridge cases to the guns used to fire them, and comparison microscopes have become more sophisticated. By the end of the 1980s, ballistic identification was an established sub-specialty of forensic science.
As documents changed and evolved, so did document comparison solutions. The second generation of documents began utilizing tables to manage a multiplicity of document layouts. Many document comparison solutions had difficulty comparing tables in document versions. These solutions first converted tables to text arrays and then compared the created arrays. In many cases, not enough due diligence on the software’s part was conducted; users would not be informed of sections that were not successfully compared. In the second generation, Microsoft’s Track Changes option was also introduced. With Track Changes, all changes made to documents were captured and stored inside the document. Flaws in the functionality of Track Changes could render the documents unusable and some comparison offerings again had difficulty managing the complex process of comparing in a Track Changes environment.
With the advent of personal computers and the ubiquity of word processing software, the need arose to find a way to manage changes made to document versions shared via disk, and later email. The importance of mitigating risks associated with potential document changes became essential as the amount of document and revision sharing increased. The early, first-generation document comparison software solutions provided robust document review, checking all the text in two documents for changes, and then presenting those changes in a third redline/comparison version.
Before third generation technology, it was common for organizations to be required to use multiple documents for one product. A main document with various supporting documents would be used to present and share necessary information. However, the third generation of documents (especially Microsoft Word) enabled multiple types of information to be presented in a single document. Compound documents could include text, tables, and various styles, and could also include a range of embedded objects, such as Excel, Visio, ChemDraw, and SmartDraw objects, and inserted images in a range of types (including jpg, tiff, bmp, and gif). While this enhancement greatly increased the usefulness of documents, it added an entirely new layer of risk to organizations that needed to fully understand changes made to document versions. The majority of document comparison software programs have not yet included mechanisms to mitigate the risk related to changes inside of embedded objects. The software program that can compare changes made in embedded objects provides pixel-to-pixel comparison of images and cell-level comparison of embedded Excel spreadsheets and other changes made to these complex, compound documents.
In the early development stage from 1995 to 2000, comparison shopping agents included not only price comparison but also rating and review services for online vendors and products. Altogether, there were three broad categories of comparison shopping services.
Even though there are a large number and variety of available Linux distributions, all of these kernels are grouped under a single entry in these tables, due to the differences among them being of the patch level. See comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison. Linux distributions that have highly modified kernels — for example, real-time computing kernels — should be listed separately. There are also a wide variety of minor BSD operating systems, many of which can be found at comparison of BSD operating systems.
Prior to personal computers, document comparison entailed the printing of two versions of a single document and reviewing those hard copies in detail for changes and version amendment. Included in this process were the potential for human error and the expansive administrative time necessitated by this arduous process. A ruler was used with a red pen to draw strike-through lines of deleted text and double-underline inserted text. The term "redline" came from using a red pen on the original/current version. When the document was placed in a copy machine, the copies came out black, thus the term "blackline."
Professionals in the banking, finance and accounting industries manage large amounts of data in spreadsheets. As one change to a value or formula could affect a substantial amount of data, these professionals find document comparison (such as comparison of two versions of a MS Excel spreadsheet) to be extremely useful in assuring accuracy in document change management.
Like most websites, price comparison websites partly rely on search engines for visitors. The general nature of shopping focused price comparison websites is that, since their content is provided by retail stores, content on price comparison websites is unlikely to be absolutely unique. The table style layout of a comparison website could be considered by Google as "Autogenerated Content and Roundup/Comparison Type of Pages". As of the 2011 updates to its search algorithm, known as Google Panda, Google seems to have started considering these comparison sites to be of low quality.
Social comparisons are also very important in the school system. Students depending on their grade level are very competitive about the grades they receive compared to their peers. Social comparisons not only influence students' self-concepts but also improve their performance. This social comparison process leads to a lower self-concept when the class level is high and to a higher self-concept when the class level is low. Therefore, two students with equal performance in a domain may develop different self-concepts when they belong to different classes with different performance levels. Social comparisons are important and valid predictors of students' self-evaluations and achievement behavior. Students may feel jealousy or competitiveness when it comes to grades and getting into better colleges and universities than their peers. Social comparison can also motivate students to do well because they want to keep along with their peers.
This is not an all-encompassing list. Some applications have many more language pairs than those listed below. This is a general comparison of key languages only. A full and accurate list of language pairs supported by each product should be found on each of the products websites.
Below is a comparison of the Afrikaans words of the first stanza of "Die Stem van Suid-Afrika" (formerly the national anthem of South Africa) with the Dutch translation.
Humans also tend to compare themselves and their belongings with others, an activity also observed in some animals. Children begin developing the ability to compare themselves to others in elementary school. In adults, this can lead to unhappiness, when a person compares things that they have to things perceived to be superior and unobtainable that others have. Some marketing relies on making such comparisons to entice people to purchase things in order to compare more favorably with other people who have these things. Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations. The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. Following the initial theory, research began to focus on social comparison as a way of self-enhancement, introducing the concepts of downward and upward comparisons and expanding the motivations of social comparisons.