To establish the YUS Conservation Area, Woodland Park Zoo's Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program (TKCP) has worked with local landowners and the PNG government for more than 12 years. TKCP was supported by Conservation International, National Geographic, and BMU (German Ministry for Environment) through KfW (German Development Bank) as part of the International Climate Change Initiative.
Posey was an anthropologist and ethnobiologist whose writings about the Kayapo people of the Amazon rainforest influenced environmental policy; traditional societies are now viewed as helpers in conservation, and steps are being taken to aid the reconstruction of these societies (Dove & Carpenter 2008:5). Posey reiterated that indigenous people were the only ones who truly knew the forests, because they inhabited them for centuries. He also determined that biodiversity was important for indigenous peoples' lives through gardens, openings into the forest and rock outcrops; what is considered natural today may have been altered by the ancestors of the indigenous peoples, rather than naturally occurring as previously thought. Posey's work is helping to redefine conservation and what it means to societies living in conservation areas.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has organized a global assortment of scientists and research stations across the planet to monitor the changing state of nature in an effort to tackle the extinction crisis. The IUCN provides annual updates on the status of species conservation through its Red List. The IUCN Red List serves as an international conservation tool to identify those species most in need of conservation attention and by providing a global index on the status of biodiversity. More than the dramatic rates of species loss, however, conservation scientists note that the sixth mass extinction is a biodiversity crisis requiring far more action than a priority focus on rare, endemic or endangered species. Concerns for biodiversity loss covers a broader conservation mandate that looks at ecological processes, such as migration, and a holistic examination of biodiversity at levels beyond the species, including genetic, population and ecosystem diversity. Extensive, systematic, and rapid rates of biodiversity loss threatens the sustained well-being of humanity by limiting supply of ecosystem services that are otherwise regenerated by the complex and evolving holistic network of genetic and ecosystem diversity. While the conservation status of species is employed extensively in conservation management, some scientists highlight that it is the common species that are the primary source of exploitation and habitat alteration by humanity. Moreover, common species are often undervalued despite their role as the primary source of ecosystem services.
In the Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Whale and Dolphin Foundation (AWDF) have been operating for 23 years in the protection of cetaceans and raising awareness of the dangers of captivity for whales and dolphins. The AWDF have established the Atlantic Ocean Cetacean Network (AOCN). The AOCN aims to bring together individuals and organisations from across the Atlantic Ocean region, working toward the conservation and protection of whales and dolphins. The AOCN aims to be a free platform to promote activities and enlist support; volunteers, funding and expert advice for the organisations within the network.
Habitat conservation is the practice of protecting a habitat in order to protect the species within it. This is sometimes preferable to focusing on a single species especially if the species in question has very specific habitat requirements or lives in a habitat with many other endangered species. The latter is often true of species living in biodiversity hotspots, which are areas of the world with an exceptionally high concentration of endemic species (species found nowhere else in the world). Many of these hotspots are in the tropics, mainly tropical forests like the Amazon. Habitat conservation is usually carried out by setting aside protected areas like national parks or nature reserves. Even when an area isn't made into a park or reserve, it can still be monitored and maintained.
While not a prevalent type of development, it's estimated that conservation development takes up between 2.5%-10% of the total US real estate development. Conservation development is usually applied to rural, exurban or suburban residential subdivisions, though it does have a few urban applications (Doyle 4).
Scientific conservation principles were first practically applied to the forests of British India. The conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, and that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, and lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments.
Conservation development seeks to protect a variety of ecological resources and services such as biodiversity, productive farmland, ecosystem services, scenic landscapes and historic and cultural resources. This is achieved by identifying the ecologically sensitive and valuable areas. The protected lands can be under an easement to prevent development on it. Housing is then built around the protected areas. Density, lots sizes, types of housing and amount of protected area is dependent on the type of conservation development.
The modern roots of conservation biology can be found in the late 18th-century Enlightenment period particularly in England and Scotland. A number of thinkers, among them notably Lord Monboddo, described the importance of "preserving nature"; much of this early emphasis had its origins in Christian theology.
Those in favor of the hotspot approach point out that species are irreplaceable components of the global ecosystem, they are concentrated in places that are most threatened, and should therefore receive maximal strategic protections. The IUCN Red List categories, which appear on Wikipedia species articles, is an example of the hotspot conservation approach in action; species that are not rare or endemic are listed the least concern and their Wikipedia articles tend to be ranked low on the importance scale. This is a hotspot approach because the priority is set to target species level concerns over population level or biomass. Species richness and genetic biodiversity contributes to and engenders ecosystem stability, ecosystem processes, evolutionary adaptability, and biomass. Both sides agree, however, that conserving biodiversity is necessary to reduce the extinction rate and identify an inherent value in nature; the debate hinges on how to prioritize limited conservation resources in the most cost-effective way.
In 2013, Niagara Conservation received the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WaterSense Manufacturer Partner of the Year award for helping to increase water efficiency and awareness. Niagara received a similar award in 2011 for contributions to conservation initiatives. Niagara has 30 products that are EPA certified, including the Stealth and Eco-Logic toilets, the Earth, Prismiere and Sava showerheads and the Dual Thread Faucet Aerator.
One of the first conservation societies was the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, founded in 1889 in Manchester as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. Originally known as "the Plumage League", the group gained popularity and eventually amalgamated with the Fur and Feather League in Croydon, and formed the RSPB. The National Trust formed in 1895 with the manifesto to "...promote the permanent preservation, for the benefit of the nation, of lands, ...to preserve (so far practicable) their natural aspect." In May 1912, a month after the Titanic sank, banker and expert naturalist Charles Rothschild held a meeting at the Natural History Museum in London to discuss his idea for a new organisation to save the best places for wildlife in the British Isles. This meeting led to the formation of the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves, which later became the Wildlife Trusts.
The term conservation came into widespread use in the late 19th century and referred to the management, mainly for economic reasons, of such natural resources as timber, fish, game, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals. In addition it referred to the preservation of forests (forestry), wildlife (wildlife refuge), parkland, wilderness, and watersheds. This period also saw the passage of the first conservation legislation and the establishment of the first nature conservation societies. The Sea Birds Preservation Act of 1869 was passed in Britain as the first nature protection law in the world after extensive lobbying from the Association for the Protection of Seabirds and the respected ornithologist Alfred Newton. Newton was also instrumental in the passage of the first Game laws from 1872, which protected animals during their breeding season so as to prevent the stock from being brought close to extinction.
While most in the community of conservation science "stress the importance" of sustaining biodiversity, there is debate on how to prioritize genes, species, or ecosystems, which are all components of biodiversity (e.g. Bowen, 1999). While the predominant approach to date has been to focus efforts on endangered species by conserving biodiversity hotspots, some scientists (e.g) and conservation organizations, such as the Nature Conservancy, argue that it is more cost-effective, logical, and socially relevant to invest in biodiversity coldspots. The costs of discovering, naming, and mapping out the distribution of every species, they argue, is an ill-advised conservation venture. They reason it is better to understand the significance of the ecological roles of species.
The concerns of over-exploitation, a threat of extinction and popular culture widely viewing whales as interesting and intelligent, led to a campaign called "Save the Whales" which began to highlight the plight of whales on a larger scale. The organized and dedicated protection and conservation of whales was started in 1971 by the American Cetacean Society, Ocean Alliance (formerly the Whale Conservation Institute), the Whale Center, and the Connecticut Cetacean Society, since then the World Wildlife Fund, National Wildlife Federation, Humane Society of the United States, Sierra Club and National Audubon Society all joined the campaign. There are many other organizations and governments that have long been actively supporting conservation efforts. In 1975 Greenpeace started its anti-whaling campaign and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society was created in 1977 by Paul Watson, a previous Greenpeace campaigner, to try a different approach using direct action tactics and unconventional methods on the open sea. Neptune's Navy, the name Sea Shepherd refers to their ships, aim to intervene and prevent whaling activities and other forms of poaching to protect marine life.
Considering the recent increase in global conservation efforts, there is hope for the tiger. Currently scientists all over the world are working round the clock to find new and innovative ways to save wild tigers from extinction. All of the Tiger Range Countries have agreed to participate in programs to dramatically increase their numbers. These efforts should lead to the removal of many of the subspecies of Panthera tigris from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
The Global Tiger Initiative is an alliance between governments created to save wild tigers from going extinct founded in June 2008. Among other successful conservation programs the GTI developed The Global Tiger Recovery Program (GRTP) to assist in reaching the goal of doubling the number of wild tigers through effective management and restoration of tiger habitats; the elimination of poaching, smuggling, and illegal trade of tigers, and their parts; collaboration to manage borders and in stopping illegal trade; working with indigenous and local communities; and returning tigers to their former range.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state conservation management of forests in the world. Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States, where Yellowstone National Park was opened in 1872 as the world's first national park.
Since this rather humble beginning in 1946, today's 36 conservation authorities operate in watersheds in which 90 percent of the provincial population resides. Managing Ontario's watershed resources is a massive undertaking involving foresters, ecologists, planners, local municipal members, engineers, agroscientists, educators, and a host of others, who work harmoniously together with watershed residents in addressing conservation related problems within their watershed.
By 1947, half a dozen municipalities had already accepted the responsibility of urging the government of Ontario to form an authority within their watershed jurisdictions. These newly formed conservation authorities would have jurisdiction over one or more individual watersheds, charged with the responsibility of addressing flooding issues in a complete and rational way. By having the power to establish regulations, these Authorities were now able to protect life and property, flood prone areas from building encroachment, and erosion problems. For example, in the wake of Hurricane Hazel in Toronto in 1954, which devastated that city with torrential rains and extensive flooding, the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority was formed to ensure that such destruction and loss of life would never happen again.