Delivery to remote, primitive or inhospitable areas may be accomplished using small aircraft, snowmobiles, horse-drawn vehicles, dog sleds, pack animals, on foot, or by a variety of other transport methods.
Grocery delivery companies will deliver groceries, pre-prep or pre-made meals, and more to customers. The companies work with brick and mortar stores or their own line of grocery items. These orders are typically larger and more expensive than normal meal deliveries, and are often not meant to be eaten right away, rather they are to replace items someone has run out of, like flour or milk. They are almost always done online, and typically take at least one day to deliver, though some companies offer same-day delivery. Many delivery services are required to offer delivery within a couple hours because frozen and fresh foods have to be delivered before they spoil.
Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell. This is done by using a virus that contains the desired gene and removing the part of the viruses genome that is infectious. Viruses are efficient at delivering genetic material to the host cell's nucleus, which is vital for replication.
Meal delivery services offer prepared meals by subscription.
The consumer demand for Supermarkets to deliver to their door created the need for a mixed temperature controlled vehicle on 3.5T chassis. These vehicle bodies were initially built with the traditional GRP sandwich panels but as more damage resistant lightweight materials with better insulation properties have become available companies have been developing Advanced Home Delivery Vehicles. The 2012 Commercial Vehicle Show in the UK saw the new JDC PolyBilt design, one of the latest of these "Plastic" bodies that can also be recycled at the end of its service life unlike the traditional GRP which ends up as landfill.
Grocery delivery differs greatly from meal delivery in the sense that its is usually sent as a parcel through common mailing services like USPS or FedEx, if it's only non-perishables. Since non-perishable items are normally packaged before arriving at grocery stores, they can easily be repackaged and delivered to customers without any special care. Sometimes, dry ice is added to keep perishable items fresh. Fresh and frozen foods complicate delivery which is done, usually by store/provider employees or third party services such as Instacart.
A partnership between 7-Eleven and Flirtey resulted in the first FAA-approved delivery to a residence in the United States in July 2016. The following month, the company partnered with Domino's in New Zealand to launch the first commercial drone delivery service.
Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell and takes advantage of the virus' own ability to replicate and implement their own genetic material. Viral methods of gene delivery are more likely to induce an immune response, but they have high efficiency. Transduction is the process that describes virus-mediated insertion of DNA into the host cell. Viruses are a particularly effective form of gene delivery because the structure of the virus prevents degradation via lysosomes of the DNA it is delivering to the nucleus of the host cell. In gene therapy a gene that is intended for delivery is packaged into a replication-deficient viral particle to form a viral vector. Viruses used for gene therapy to date include retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. However, there are drawbacks to using viruses to deliver genes into cells. Viruses can only deliver very small pieces of DNA into the cells, it is labor-intensive and there are risks of random insertion sites, cytophathic effects and mutagenesis.
The grocery delivery business has taken off, with hundreds of niche delivery companies springing up offering a variety of different services from weekly grocery restock to pre-planned, pre-measured family meals to make cooking easier. Online retailer giants have hopped on board too. Amazon.com, for example, offers AmazonFresh delivery service. Amazon purchased Whole Foods Market in 2017, and by 2018 Amazon had added Whole Foods items to its Prime Now service, for 2-hour delivery in certain markets.
In the Philippines, most commonly delivered meals are from fastfood chains like Jollibee, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Shakey's, KFC, etc. Orders are being done through their delivery websites, mobile apps, or by phone. Time of delivery usually takes around 30 to 45 minutes.
According to Forbes, grocery stores should delivery their own groceries to help prevent third party, part-time, non-store deliverers from becoming the 'face' or brand image of their local grocer. Limitations of having to pick and deliver groceries within a short period of time need to be remedied to allow for more flexibility to enable more deliveries to be more efficiently routed. Frozen and fresh food refrigeration units inside the store and the delivery vehicle, as well as lockable, consumer refrigeration boxes at the consumers home will be a solution that allows the groceries to be delivered at any time, further relieving delivery issues. This scenario will allow more local grocers to delivery with employees vs outside delivery services.
Meal delivery orders are typically on demand, and intended to be eaten right away, and include hot, already-prepared food. Pizza delivery is the largest meal delivery industry at the moment. Ordering for delivery usually involves contacting a local restaurant or chain by telephone or online. Online ordering is available in many countries, were some stores offer online menus and ordering. Since 1995, companies such as Waiter.com have their own interfaces where customers order food from nearby restaurants that have partnered with the service. Meal delivery requires special technology and care, since the food items are already cooked and prepared, and can be easily damaged if dropped, tilted, or left out for long periods of time. Hotbags are often used to keep food warm. They are thermal bags, typically made of vinyl, nylon, or Cordura, that passively retain heat.
Often, passenger vehicles are used for delivery of goods. These include buses, vans, pick-ups, cars (e.g., for mail or pizza delivery), motorcycles and bicycles (e.g., for newspaper delivery). A significant amount of freight is carried in the cargo holds of passenger ships and aircraft. Everyday travelers, known as a casual courier, can also be used to deliver goods.
Bags used to keep pizza hot while being transported are commonly referred to as hotbags or hot bags. Hotbags are thermal bags, typically made of vinyl, nylon, or Cordura, that passively retain heat. Material choice affects cost, durability, and condensation. Heated bags supply added heat through insertion of externally heated disks, electrical heating elements, or pellets heated by induction from electrically generated magnetic waves. Innovations in delivery bag designs have allowed without the usage of a fixed box for bike delivery, such as a hard frame, back straps, and waterproofing. These systems proved to be cheaper, more efficient and faster to use.
Early prototypes of food delivery drones include the Tacocopter demonstration by Star Simpson, which was a taco delivery concept utilizing a smartphone app to order drone-delivered tacos in San Francisco area. The revelation that it didn't exist as a delivery system or app led to it being labelled a hoax. A similar concept named the "burrito bomber" was tested in 2012. That same year, a Free University of Berlin student project examined the use of drones for pizza delivery. In 2013, as part of an advertising campaign, an independent Domino's UK franchise tested the Domicopter. Similar flights were conducted in India and Russia, but lacked regulatory approval.
Vehicles are often specialized to deliver different types of goods. On land, semi-trailers are outfitted with various trailers such as box trailers, flatbeds, car carriers, tanks and other specialized trailers, while railroad trains include similarly specialized cars. Armored cars, dump trucks and concrete mixers are examples of vehicles specialized for delivery of specific types of goods. On the sea, merchant ships come in various forms, such as cargo ships, oil tankers and fishing boats. Freight aircraft are used to deliver cargo.
Home delivery is often available for fast food and other convenience products, e.g. pizza delivery. Sometimes home delivery of supermarket goods is possible. A milk float is a small battery electric vehicle (BEV), specifically designed for the delivery of fresh milk. A new form of delivery is emerging on the horizon of the internet age: Delivery by the crowd e.g. crowd delivery. In this concept, an individual not necessarily contracted by the vendor performs the delivery of goods to the destination. Sometimes, private courier companies will also deliver consumer goods on a regular basis for companies like E-commerce businesses.
Various meal kit delivery subscription services have started in Europe and North America since 2007. These typically have pre-measured ingredients designed for accompanying recipes.
Delivery of heavy goods, such as furniture or large appliances, requires a different logistical process that most small parcel couriers. For example, the supply chain of shipping large household goods from their manufacturers, to residential or business locations throughout the country and world is more complex and carries with it a higher potential for damage and error than with smaller packages.
Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of synthetic or natural phospholipids that self-assemble in aqueous solution in sizes ranging from tens of nanometers to micrometers. The resulting vesicle, which has an aqueous core surrounded by a hydrophobic membrane, can be loaded with a wide variety of hydrophobic or hydrophilic molecules for therapeutic purposes. Liposomes are typically synthesized with naturally occurring phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. Cholesterol is often included in the formulation to adjust the rigidity of the membrane and to increase stability. The molecular cargo is loaded through liposome formation in aqueous solution, solvent exchange mechanisms, or pH gradients methods. Various molecules can also be chemically conjugated to the surface of the liposome to alter recognition properties. One typical modification is conjugating polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to the vesicle surface. The hydrophilic polymer prevents recognition by macrophages and decreases clearance. The size, surface charge, and bilayer fluidity also alter liposome delivery kinetics. Liposomes diffuse from the bloodstream into the interstitial space near the target site. As the cell membrane itself is composed of phospholipids, liposomes can directly fuse with the membrane and release the cargo into the cytosol, or may enter the cell through phagocytosis or other active transport pathways. Liposomal delivery has various advantages. Liposomes increase the solubility, stability, and uptake of drug molecules. Peptides, polymers, and other molecules can be conjugated to the surface of a liposome for targeted delivery. Conjugating various ligands can facilitate binding to target cells based on the receptor-ligand interaction. Altering vesicle size and surface chemistry can also be tuned to increase circulation time. Various FDA-approved liposomal drugs are in clinical use in the US. The anthracycline drug doxorubicin is delivered with phospholipid-cholesterol liposomes to treat AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and multiple myeloma with high efficacy and low toxicity. Many others are undergoing clinical trials, and liposomal drug delivery remains an active field of research today, with potential applications including nucleic acid therapy, brain targeting, and tumor therapy.