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Editing - Technical editing

It helps if the technical editor is familiar with the subject being edited. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology. But essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, and excellent communication skills.

Editing - Editing services

Self-employed editors work directly for clients (e.g., authors, publishers) or offer their services through editing firms, or both. They may specialize in a type of editing (e.g., copy editing) and in a particular subject area. Those who work directly for authors and develop professional relationships with them are called authors' editors.

Editing - Technical editing

Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide.

Editing - Technical editing

Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors typically have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues.

Editing - Editing services

Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both. Such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors. The services provided by these editors may be varied and can include proofreading, copy editing, online editing, developmental editing, editing for search engine optimization (SEO), etc.

Editing - Technical editing

Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, misspellings, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, content, index, headings and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, and correcting errors in citations.

Editing - Editing services

Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by specialized editing firms or by self-employed (freelance) editors.

Offline editing - Exact editing

That innovation came about as a result of research conducted by CMX, a joint venture of the CBS and Memorex corporations. The intent was to create a much less haphazard method of editing video directly that had all of the creative control of traditional film editing. The result, the CMX 600, accomplished this goal with a two part process. Camera master tapes were dubbed as black and white analog video to very large computer memory discs. The editor could access any shot exactly, and quickly edit a precise black and white, low quality version of the program. More importantly, re-editing was trivial, as no cuts were actually performed. The shots were simply accessed and played in sequence from the disc in real time. The computer kept track of all the numbers in this offline stage of the process, and when the editor was satisfied, output them as an Edit decision list (EDL). This EDL was used in the final stage of the process, the online edit. To make it work, special computer to video tape recorder (VTR) edit interfaces had to be developed, called I-Squareds. Under the control of a computer reading back the EDL and communications protocols, these I-Squareds took control and shuttled the broadcast quality VTRs exactly to the points necessary to record and edit master with exact edits from the source tapes.

Offline editing - Exact editing

Though recording to computer disc pack and this first attempt at non-linear editing on video was abandoned as too expensive, the rest of the hardware was recycled into the offline/online edit process that remained dominant in television production for the next 20 years or more.

Offline editing - Exact editing

Though both of these developments helped greatly, effectively creating the offline editing method, they didn't solve the problem of precisely controlling the video recorder for frame accurate editing. That required precise control of the tape transport mechanism, using a dedicated edit controller that could read the time code and perform an edit exactly on cue.

Data editing - Automatic editing

In automatic editing records are edited by a computer without human intervention. Prior knowledge on the values of a single variable or a combination of variables can be formulated as a set of edit rules which specify or constrain the admissible values

Offline editing - Exact editing

Although tape formats changed from open reels to videocassettes (VCR), and all the equipment rapidly became much cheaper, the basics of the process remained the same. An editor would offline on a less expensive, low quality format, before entering the online editing suite with an EDL and master source tapes, to finish the broadcast quality version of the television show. Even after the transition to digital the concept is the same, with low resolution proxy files streaming from central media storage during editing and the full quality video only getting brought up from deep storage once the clip is committed and rendered.

Copy editing - Content editing

Content editing consists of reorganizing or restructuring the content of a document. This involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Copyeditors can either fix the content by rewriting it or heavily editing it. However, the copyeditor will often point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time.

Video editing - Types of editing

*Non-linear editing systems (NLE) allow video to be edited on computers with specialized software. This process is not destructive to the raw video footage and is done by using programs such as DaVinci Resolve, Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro.

Copy editing - Hard-copy editing

Traditional markup copy editing, or hard-copy editing, is still important because screening tests for employment may be administered in hard copy. Also, the author whose text the copy editor is editing may prefer hard-copy markup, and copy editors need to know traditional markup in case documents and materials cannot be exchanged electronically. When editing in hard-copy, all participating parties (the editor, author, typesetter, and proofreader) must understand the marks the copy editor makes, and therefore a universal marking system that signifies these changes exists. This is also why the copy editor should write legibly and neatly. Copy editors working hard-copy write their corrections in the text directly, leaving the margins for querying. Usually the copy editor is asked to write in a bright color, so the author and other parties can easily recognize the editor's changes.

Genetic editing - Genetic editing models

Genetic editing is strong in European, particularly French and German, textual scholarship. The German genetic editing, which has been associated with synoptic telescoping has a different method of presentation from the Anglo-American model. The primary model and test case of German editions has been Johann Wolfgang von Goethe while in England and the United States it is William Shakespeare, who did not leave manuscripts of his works. Completed works of genetic editing are known as genetic editions. These documents are similar to documentary editions but it also include information detailing the different phases of writing and rewriting of the manuscript.

Video editing - Types of editing

* Online editing is the process of reassembling the edit to full resolution video after an offline edit has been performed. It is done in the final stage of a video production.

Video editing - Home video editing

Like some other technologies, the cost of video editing has declined over time. The original 2" Quadruplex system cost so much that many television production facilities could only afford a single unit, and editing was a highly involved process that required special training. In contrast to this, nearly any home computer sold since the year 2000 has the speed and storage capacity to digitize and edit standard-definition television (SDTV). The two major retail operating systems include basic video editing software - Apple's iMovie and Microsoft's Windows Movie Maker. Additional options exist, usually as more advanced commercial products. As well as these commercial products, there are opensource video-editing programs. Automatic video editing products have also emerged, opening up video editing to a broader audience of amateurs and reducing the time it takes to edit videos. These exist usually as media storage services, such as Google with its Google Photos or smaller companies like Vidify.

Video editing - Types of editing

* Offline editing is the process by which raw footage is copied from an original source, without affecting the original film stock or video tape. Once the editing is complete, the original media is then re-assembled in the online editing stage.

Film editing - Film editing technology

Before the widespread use of digital non-linear editing systems, the initial editing of all films was done with a positive copy of the film negative called a film workprint (cutting copy in UK) by physically cutting and pasting together pieces of film. Strips of footage would be hand cut and attached together with tape and then later in time, glue. Editors were very precise; if they made a wrong cut or needed a fresh positive print, it cost the production money and time for the lab to reprint the footage. With the invention of a splicer and threading the machine with a viewer such as a Moviola, or "flatbed" machine such as a K.-E.-M. or Steenbeck, the editing process sped up a little bit and cuts came out cleaner and more precise. The Moviola editing practice is non-linear, allowing the editor to make choices faster, a great advantage to editing episodic films for television which have very short timelines to complete the work. All film studios and production companies who produced films for television provided this tool for their editors. Flatbed editing machines were used for playback and refinement of cuts, particularly in feature films and films made for television because they were less noisy and cleaner to work with. They were used extensively for documentary and drama production within the BBC's Film Department. Operated by a team of two, an editor and assistant editor, this tactile process required significant skill but allowed for editors to work extremely efficiently.

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