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Epa mask - Epa Masquerade

Early writers interpreted Epa ceremonies as entirely focused on fertility. However, others have found the ceremonies to be equally concerned with warriors and the medicine God Osanyin, relating them to both physical and spiritual security. Ojo, following Carroll, has proposed that at one level the ceremonies incorporate the re-enactment of historical events. In a ceremony recorded by Heyden in lloro, Ekiti, masks surmounted by female figures were identified as the wives of the warrior Okotorojo, represented by an animal mask resembling a goat or antelope. Okotorojo, the principal figure in the festival, was chained to another man described as either having the duty to restrain the wild powers of the warrior or, paradoxically, as the representative of the power (ase) of Eleda, who always remains behind the warrior to render him invincible in battle.

Michigan v. EPA - EPA action and subsequent suit

The EPA completed the required study in 1998 and concluded that regulation of coal and oil-fired power plants was "appropriate and necessary."

Michigan v. EPA - EPA action and subsequent suit

In 2012, the Agency reaffirmed the "appropriate and necessary" finding and promulgated floor standards, finding that "mercury and other hazardous air pollutants posed risks to human health and the environment." Although the EPA estimated that regulations would cost power plants $9.6 billion per year, the EPA concluded that "“costs should not be considered” when determining whether power plants should be regulated.

Michigan v. EPA - EPA action and subsequent suit

A group of non-profit organizations, corporations, and 23 states filed suit to challenge the EPA's refusal to consider costs when regulating power plants, but the United States Circuit Court for District of Columbia upheld the Agency's decision to not consider costs. In 2014, the Supreme Court of the United States granted certiorari to resolve the question of whether the EPA must consider costs when regulating power plants under the Clean Air Act.

EPA Sustainability - Policies and programs

The EPA has created over 25 policies and programs to help with urban sustainability, ranging from "Building America" which works with the residential building industry to develop and implement building processes that save builders and homeowners millions; to "Smart Growth and Schools" which gives information on the principals of smart growth to plan educational facilities; to "Watershed" which shows how using a watershed approach can help to protect our water resources. One of the more successful programs the EPA utilizes is the "Green Building" program. Green Building is the practice of building structures and using methods that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient. Many aspects go into Green Building such as the design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This program helps to bring awareness to Green Building and create healthier, more resource-efficient aspects of construction.

EPA Methods - Searchable databases

Since the EPA methods are created by different regulatory departments within the EPA, finding methods on the EPA website itself can be challenging. To make finding methods easier, some organizations have created method search databases that organize all the methods into one place and link to actual test methods. Some allow searching by method number, analyte, or other keywords in the method.

EPA Sustainability - Assessments and performance measures

The EPA assesses and measures energy, biofuels, and climate change many different ways. One very effective measure used by numerous environmental programs is the Environmental Indicators Initiative (EII) which was developed in 2001 to help the EPA in improving their reporting on the standing and tendencies of environmental conditions. As part of the EII, the EPA developed the Report on the Environment (ROE) project as a national report for the public and policy makers on the conditions of the United States' environment. The report is used to answer 23 questions about new developments in land, water and ecological systems with potential connections to human health that are related to their mission.

Epa mask - Ritual Context

In north-west Yorubaland the Epa masks are kept by the head of a lineage or a town chief on behalf of the lineage or community. When in use they are choreographed as emerging from the bush, where they return once the festival is completed. Offerings may be made to a mask before it is used or during the ceremony. According to Robert Thompson, 'the Epa cult stresses the transformation of young men into stalwart specimens able to bear pain and shoulder heavy weight'. King Arowolo of lloro distinguished between the type of energy belonging to the cult of Elefon, concerned with ancestral spirits, and the cult of Epa, connected with the dignified, slow and patient masquerades of ancient men and culture heroes. While the Ekiti Yoruba share their principal deities with Yoruba from elsewhere, they also have many deities and masquerades peculiar to themselves, leading other fieldworkers to note that the distinction is less clear than Thompson suggested. In north-eastern Yorubaland, Epa and other masks are used in annual ceremonies, held in February or March in some places or as late as September in others to promote the fertility and well-being of the community. They also appear in Elefon festivals performed to celebrate the return of the warriors, to honor Ogun, the god of war and iron and to mark the growth of new crops. Elsewhere such masks were used in post-burial rites relating to titled men. In one fairly consistent episode in the festival the masquerader, supporting a mask which can often weigh 50 lbs or more, attempts to jump off a mound to augur the quality of the new year. A fall or loss of balance is read as a bad omen which may herald coming misfortune.

EPA Network - Background

The EPA Network provides a forum for the heads of these agencies to exchange vies and share experiences at a strategic level.

EPA Sustainability - Assessments and performance measures

Assessments and performance measures are also conducted by the EPA through reports, programs, and promotion of acceptable practices. For example, the EPA has a push for life cycle assessments. The life cycle assessment, also referred to as LCA, is a technique that is used to determine how a product or process impacts the environment from the very initial inputs to the final product. It is the interpretation of these results that can help companies to make decisions in favor of the environment.

EPA Sustainability - Water and ecosystem services

Under EPA Administrator William K. Reilly, President’s George H. Bush’s appointee, so-called placed-based initiatives focused on interconnected land and water systems gained in importance because places resonated with the public in a way that parts-per-million just do not.

EPA Sustainability - Policies and programs

One of EPA’s most emphasized programs in this sector is called Children’s Health. Children are more vulnerable to effects of toxins or chemicals in the environment and the EPA has a priority for children’s health. The EPA has conducted much research in areas related to materials management and human health. They have studied air toxics, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, life cycle assessments, and more. There are over 20 other policies and programs in place for material management and human health. These include, but are not limited to environmental management systems, green suppliers network, national waste minimization program, pollution prevention partnerships, and sustainable futures. Each of aforementioned not only emphasize a greener environment, but they promote collaborative efforts among the target audiences.

EPA Network

The EPA Network cooperates on common issues with the network of European Nature Protection Agencies ENCA, as well as with other networks, such as, IMPEL

EPA Network

The EPA Network is the European Network of the Heads of Environment Protection Agencies.

EPA Network

The EPA Network is an informal grouping of the Heads and Directors of European Environmental Protection Agencies and similar bodies across Europe. The Network is a forum for the exchange of views and experiences on issues of common interest to organisations involved in the practical day-to-day implementation of environmental policy. The EPA Network was established in 2003 and consists at present of 39 organisations. The Network meets twice a year in plenary and has established a number of interest groups dealing with issues of interest to member agencies. The issues dealt with by the interest groups cover topics from better regulation to climate change adaptation. The Network has issued a number of statements on environmental policy and implementation.

EPA Sustainability - Material management and human health

The EPA has also dedicated their time toward materials management & human health. Within the definition of sustainability lies the facets of many generations and therefore the long-term impacts created by man must be taken into consideration. The EPA has been involved in the promotion of the use of more environmentally friendly materials and chemicals since the development of its mission. Toxic chemicals pose threats to both the environment and people, but the EPA is working to lessen these impacts. EPA programs involved in the materials management & human health sector work to promote greener and cleaner products and production processes. These objectives not only benefit the environment, but they often result in costs that are less than traditional techniques.

EPA Network

The secretariat is at present hosted by the European Environment Agency which is also a member of the EPA Network and is located in Copenhagen

Vehicle size class - EPA

EPA size classes are defined in Federal Regulation, Title 40—Protection of Environment, Section 600.315-08 "Classes of comparable automobiles". This information is repeated in the Fuel Economy Guide. Passenger car classes are defined based on interior volume index (the combined passenger and cargo volume) and are as follows.

EPA Sustainability - Assessments and performance measures

The EPA also releases reports on current trends of environmental resources and advisories for issues such as chemical contaminant levels. EPA has set up fish advisories, landscape ecological projects, national coastal condition reports and reports on the quality of American lakes. The fish advisories inform the public about possible health risks from high chemical contaminant levels. The advisory may recommend for people to limit and stop their consumption of certain fish species in particular regions. Landscape ecology projects focus on the relationships between the characteristics of the land and how they may tie in with possible risks of natural resources. Reports on national coastal condition provide information on the status of ecological and environmental components. The other report that EPA puts out through the water and ecosystem services sector is on the quality of American lakes; this informs both the public and Congress about the water quality in various lakes, rivers, and ponds within the United States.

EPA WaterSense - Background

WaterSense is not a regulatory program, but rather a voluntary program. EPA develops specifications for water efficient products through a public process. If a manufacturer makes a product that meets those specifications, the product is eligible for third-party testing to ensure the stated efficiency and performance criteria have been met. If the product passes the test, the manufacturer is rewarded with the right to put the WaterSense label on that product.

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