Functionality doctrine - Aesthetic Functionality

In the United States, the “functionality” doctrine exists to stop a party from obtaining exclusive trade dress or trademark rights in the functional features of a product or its packaging. The doctrine developed as a way to preserve the division between what trademark law protects and areas that are better protected by patent or copyright law. Thus, the functionality doctrine serves to prevent trademark owners from inhibiting legitimate competition

Functionality doctrine - Utilitarian Functionality

As of 2014 the federal circuit courts are split on their utilitarian functionality analysis. Most circuits, such as the Fifth Circuit and the Sixth Circuit follow the Supreme Court's analysis in TrafFix Devices, Inc. v. Marketing Displays, Inc., which focuses on whether the feature is essential to the use or purpose of the product. The Federal Circuit in contrast focuses its analysis on whether permitting a product feature to be trademarked would impair competitors.

Functionality (chemistry) - Functionality in polymer chemistry

However, IUPAC definition and the use of the term in organic chemistry differ with respect to the functionality of a double bond. In polymer chemistry, a double bond possesses a functionality of two (because two points of contact for further polymer chains are present, on each of the two adjacent carbon atoms), while in organic chemistry the double bond is a functional group and thus has a functionality of one.

Functionality (chemistry) - Functionality in polymer chemistry

From the average functionality of the used monomers the reaching of the gel point can be calculated as a function of reaction progress. Side reactions may increase or decrease the functionality.

Functionality (chemistry) - Functionality in polymer chemistry

According to IUPAC, the functionality of a monomer is defined as the number of bonds that a monomer's repeating unit forms in a polymer with other monomers. Thus in the case of a functionality of f = 2 a linear polymer is formed by polymerizing (a thermoplastic). Monomers with a functionality f ≥ 3 lead to a branching point, which can lead to cross-linked polymers (a thermosetting polymer). Monofunctional monomers do not exist as such molecules lead to a chain termination.

Functionality (chemistry) - Functionality in organic chemistry and material science

In organic chemistry, functionality is often used as a synonym for functional group. For example, a hydroxyl group can also be called a HO-function.

Functionality (chemistry)

In polymer chemistry the functionality of a monomer means its number of polymerizable groups, and affects the formation and the degree of crosslinking of polymers. A monofunctional molecule possesses one function, a difunctional two, a trifunctional three, etc.

Interface functionality

In telephony, interface functionality is the characteristic of interfaces that allows operators to support transmission, switching, and signaling functions identical to those used in the enhanced services provided by the carrier.

Functionality (chemistry)

In chemistry, functionality is the presence of functional groups in a molecule. In organic chemistry (and other fields of chemistry) functionality of a molecule has a decisive influence on its reactivity.

Functionality doctrine

In United States trademark law, the functionality doctrine prevents manufacturers from protecting specific features of a product by means of trademark law. There are two branches of the functionality doctrine: utilitarian functionality and aesthetic functionality. The rationale behind functionality doctrine is that product markets would not be truly competitive if newcomers could not make a product with a feature that consumers demand. Utilitarian functionality provides grounds to deny federal trademark protection to product features which do something useful. Patent law, not trademark, protects useful processes, machines, and material inventions. Patented designs are presumed to be functional until proven otherwise. Aesthetic functionality provides grounds to deny trademark protection to design features which are included to make the product more aesthetically appealing and commercially desirable. Aesthetic features are within the purview of copyright law, which provides protection to creative and original works of authorship.

Hardware functionality scan

A hardware functionality scan (HFS) is conducted in order to verify that a certain device is really what it claims to be. It is patented by Microsoft.

Hardware functionality scan - Problems

In order to support open-source drivers, a hardware manufacturer has to reveal some details about their product, but HFS requires this information to be kept secret. The problem with generic drivers is that the HFS requires individual drivers for each variant of a product to make them distinguishable, drivers have to account for implementation details instead of using abstract functionality models.

Fibre Channel over Ethernet - Functionality

Computers can connect to FCoE with converged network adapters (CNAs), which contain both Fibre Channel host bus adapter (HBA) and Ethernet network interface controller (NIC) functionality on the same physical card. CNAs have one or more physical Ethernet ports. FCoE encapsulation can be done in software with a conventional Ethernet network interface card, however FCoE CNAs offload (from the CPU) the low level frame processing and SCSI protocol functions traditionally performed by Fibre Channel host bus adapters.

Tag management system - Functionality

Tag management systems replace these multiple tags with a single container tag and subsequently prioritize and "fire" individual tags as appropriate based on business rules, navigation events and known data. Typical functionality includes testing environment (sandboxing), audit trail and version control, ability to A/B test different solutions, tag deduplication, and role-based access to data.

Caddie (CAD system) - Functionality

Survey - an array of tools developed specifically for working with complex construction surveys, unusually equally applicable to southern and northern hemispheres. It includes functionality for spot heights, polar coordinates, coordinate joins, transition curves, height interpolation, helmert transformations, as well as full GPS integration using multiple different coordinate systems.

Rosetta Stone Ltd. v. Google, Inc. - Functionality

The Court completely rejected application of the functionality doctrine under these circumstances. The Court ruled that the proper place to analyze functionality is in relation to how the trademark relates to the functionality of the actual product not whether it makes Google's computer program function better.

Chromebit - Functionality

Chromebits have a superficial resemblance to the Chromecast, another Google device. But whereas the Chromecast is designed to display video and still images on a television or other large-screen display, the Chromebit is a self-contained personal computer. The device will compete against the Intel Compute Stick, which offers similar plug-in functionality using two other operating systems, Windows 8.1 and Ubuntu.

Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms - Functionality

BLAS functionality is categorized into three sets of routines called "levels", which correspond to both the chronological order of definition and publication, as well as the degree of the polynomial in the complexities of algorithms; Level 1 BLAS operations typically take linear time,

Fritz!Box - Functionality

Many Fritz!Boxes offer wireless repeater functionality which, in earlier firmware versions, was compatible with the IEEE 802.11-1999 standard wireless distribution system before being replaced with a proprietary system in more recent firmware versions.

Unicheck - Functionality

Unicheck offers search and recognition functionality for similarities, citations, and references in texts. It can also discover characters that have been replaced in the text from another alphabet — for example, similar characters from the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. To find similarities and paraphrases, checks are performed against the Internet (web pages indexed by Yahoo and Google), open source repositories, and user’s internal library or database. The check results are presented as a similarity report, where each of the similarities that have been found has a link to the source. These reports can be downloaded as PDF documents.