Classic geological compasses that are of practical use combine two functions, direction finding and navigation (especially in remote areas), and the ability to measure strike and dip of bedding surfaces and/or metamorphic foliation planes. Structural geologists (i.e. those concerned with geometry and the pattern of relative movement) also have a need to measure the plunge and plunge direction of lineations.
The concept of modern geological compass was developed by Eberhard Clar of the University of Vienna during his work as structural geologist. He published it in 1954. An advantage of his concept is that strike and dip is measured in one step, using the vertical circle for dip angle and the compass for the strike direction. The first implementation was done by the VEB Freiberger Präzisionsmechanik in Freiberg, Germany. The details of the design were made in a close cooperation with the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. In 2016 Brunton Inc. introduced the Axis Pocket Transit which, for the first time, offered simultaneous measurements of both strike and dip and trend and plunge in a variety of configurations. It features an unconventional lid design that swings a full 360 degrees in both directions and two axes that allow precise measurement of vertical and horizontal angles on all configurations of bedding surfaces.
Some of the geological parks include Tiruvakkarai National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with wood fossils scattered over 247 acres nine separate enclaves, Sathanur National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with an 18-meter 120 million years old fossilised tree trunk from the Cretaceous period, Nehru Zoological Park at Hyderabad with life size figures of T-Rex and other dinosaurs, and Saketi Fossil Park near Chandigarh with a fossil museum and life size fiberglass models of six pre-historic animals.
In March 1838, the survey was divided into four departments: geological and mineralogical, zoological, botanical, and topographical. Each department was headed by a specialist under the direction of the State Geologist. In 1840, the botanical and zoological aspects of the survey were abolished by the legislature. They were perceived as offering the state little benefit, overriding Houghton's protests that they remain. In 1845, Houghton was out sailing on Lake Superior when a storm overturned his boat and he drowned. After this incident the survey was suspended, although Houghton's assistant and another surveyor continued to map the mineralogical deposits on the south shore of Lake Superior.
On January 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted as a state. On that same day, a bill was introduced and approved in the state legislature to conduct a geological survey of Michigan. Dr. Douglass Houghton, who created and planned the survey, convinced legislators to approve its creation and funding. The bill, titled "An act to provide for a geological survey of the state", was signed into law by Governor Stevens T. Mason on February 23, commencing the state's first geological survey. Owing to his effort in creating the survey, Houghton was named the first State Geologist. Abram Sager was appointed as Houghton's assistant for the zoological and botanical aspects of the survey. The survey was appropriated $3000 for its first year. The motivational factor for establishing a geological survey was primarily to secure supplies of salt. Lesser reasons were to help dispel negative beliefs about the state and to investigate copper resources in the Upper Peninsula. As established, the survey was expected to be completed in four years; however, it was soon realized that a proper survey of the entire state would take much longer.
The International Union of Geological Sciences is the main scientific sponsor of the International Geological Congress (IGC), which takes place every four years. South Africa and Cape Town hosted the 35th International Geological Congress in 2016. The 34th Session of the International Geological Congress took place in Brisbane, Australia in August 2012, where IUGS-IGC Council decided that India will host the 36th session in 2020. . The event has been gowing bigger with each passing year. The first congress was in France in 1878 where a few geoscientists gathered to share new finds and the aim was to create a framework and a platform for geoscientists to meet at regular intervals. The 36th IGC will be jointly hosted by India, Bangladesh,Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The theme for the 36th IGC is "Geosciences:The Basic Science for a Sustainable Future".
In the late 1850s, the Michigan Legislature received petitions from various interests to further investigate the state's salt resources, leading to the establishment of a second geological survey on February 15, 1859. Dr. Alexander Winchell of the University of Michigan was named State Geologist on March 9. Winchell spent much of his time from 1859 through 1862 conducting field work that culminated in a single comprehensive report. His report included a general description of the state's geology and more detailed descriptions of some of its mineral resources of economic interest, including coal, gypsum, and salt in the Lower Peninsula, and iron in the Upper Peninsula. In 1863 the legislature did not approve further funding for the survey, as the state treasury was dedicated to funding the American Civil War. Official termination of the survey occurred on March 7, 1863, by a joint resolution of the state legislature.
The Colombian Geological Survey runs a network of museums located in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali which are named after José Royo y Gómez, a Spaniard geologist who was forced into exile in Colombia during the Spanish Civil War. His contribution to the study of geology in Colombia can be traced back all the way to the days of the foundation of the geological survey as he was called to take part of the newly created Servicio Geológico Nacional de Colombia just nine days after his arrival to the country. Throughout José Royo y Gómez' time at the SGNC, he directed various commissions where he continued his investigations and promoting the study of natural sciences in Colombia.
The journal publishes peer reviewed articles on all aspects of earth science. Most contributions are from India, with a few from neighbouring countries and rarely from outside the continent. But as a reliable source of information on Indian geology it has acquired some repute in geological circles.
The newly revised classification system presented in this report is designed for use in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library and other earth science libraries. Prior to the administration of Fred Boughton Weeks, 1903–1908, the library lacked a classification scheme. The Dewey Decimal system for geologic material was not sufficiently developed to accommodate the range of specialized material collected at the USGS Library, and The Library of Congress Classification System had not yet been published. The library staff and patrons were concerned about continued development of the collection without an acceptable classification scheme. Mr. Weeks and bibliographer John M. Nickles of the library staff, with the assistance of three consultants from the New York Public Library, developed the USGS classification system designed specifically for an earth science library. The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences.
Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic (or block). Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, and so becomes a GCR site. Almost all GCR sites (but no other sites) are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may also be of importance for stratigraphy.
In geology, debris usually applies to the remains of geological activity including landslides, volcanic explosions, avalanches, mudflows or Glacial lake outburst floods (Jökulhlaups) and moraine, lahars, and lava eruptions. Geological debris sometimes moves in a stream called a debris flow. When it accumulates at the base of hillsides, it can be called "talus" or "scree".
Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, and deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites usually concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings, caves and other landforms. If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, and conservation usually involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage.
Individual states or provinces may also have a geological survey. Examples include:
In the summer of 1933, the Geological Museum, still at its old location, was the focus of worldwide attention when it served as the venue of the London Economic Conference, bringing together the representatives of 66 nations in a failed effort to end the then-prevalent global depression.
Although each SSSI designated for geological reasons has its own distinctive features, they fall into a small number of broad categories, as indicated in the individual citation sheets:
The set of rocks (sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic) that formed during a geological period is known as a system, so for example the 'Jurassic System' of rocks was formed during the 'Jurassic Period' (between 201 and 145 million years ago).
American geologists have long considered the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian to be periods in their own right though the ICS now recognises them both as 'subperiods' of the Carboniferous Period recognised by European geologists. Cases like this in China, Russia and even New Zealand with other geological eras has slowed down the uniform organization of the stratigraphic record.
With the advent of the smartphone, geological compass programs based on the 3-axis teslameter and the 3-axis accelerometer have also begun to appear. These compass programs use vector algebra to compute plane and lineation orientations from the accelerometer and magnetometer data, and permit rapid collection of many measurements. However, some problems are potentially present. Measurements made by smartphone geological compasses can potentially be susceptible to noise, mainly due to vibration or rapid hand movement. Users of a smartphone compass should carefully calibrate their devices and run several tests against traditional magnetic compasses in order to understand the limitations of their chosen program.
Dante's View is part of the Black Mountains, a part of Amargosa Range, that was geological Mesozoic volcanoes. These mountains were created when the surface of the earth was being stretched, forming a horst or a pulling force, forming grabens. The crust ruptured because of this force, and as a result, lava erupted and ended up deposited on top of the preceding sedimentary rock.