Graphical model - Types of graphical models

Generally, probabilistic graphical models use a graph-based representation as the foundation for encoding a distribution over a multi-dimensional space and a graph that is a compact or factorized representation of a set of independences that hold in the specific distribution. Two branches of graphical representations of distributions are commonly used, namely, Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. Both families encompass the properties of factorization and independences, but they differ in the set of independences they can encode and the factorization of the distribution that they induce.

Graphical models for protein structure - Continuous graphical models for protein structures

Graphical models can still be used when the variables of choice are continuous. In these cases, the probability distribution is represented as a multivariate probability distribution over continuous variables. Each family of distribution will then impose certain properties on the graphical model. Multivariate Gaussian distribution is one of the most convenient distributions in this problem. The simple form of the probability and the direct relation with the corresponding graphical model makes it a popular choice among researchers.

Graphical models for protein structure - Gaussian graphical models of protein structures

To learn the graph structure as a multivariate Gaussian graphical model, we can use either L-1 regularization, or neighborhood selection algorithms. These algorithms simultaneously learn a graph structure and the edge strength of the connected nodes. An edge strength corresponds to the potential function defined on the corresponding two-node clique. We use a training set of a number of PDB structures to learn the \mu and \Sigma^{-1}.

Vector-based graphical user interface - Usage in 2D graphical user interfaces

New version of AmigaOS 4.1 enhanced in 2008 its Workbench with 2D vector graphical interface based on Cairo libraries, but pragmatically integrated it with a 3D Compositing Engine based on Porter-Duff Routines.

Graphical models for protein structure - Gaussian graphical models of protein structures

Gaussian graphical models are multivariate probability distributions encoding a network of dependencies among variables. Let be a set of n variables, such as n dihedral angles, and let f(\Theta=D) be the value of the probability density function at a particular value D. A multivariate Gaussian graphical model defines this probability as follows:

Vector-based graphical user interface - Usage in 3D graphical user interfaces

Since current 3D Graphics are usually vector-based, rather than raster-based, vector-based graphical user interfaces would be suitable for 3D graphical user interfaces. This is because raster-based 3D models take up an enormous amount of memory, as they are stored and displayed using voxels. Current operating systems such as Windows Vista, Mac OS X, and UNIX-based operating systems (including Linux) have enjoyed much benefit from using 3D graphical user interfaces. In Windows Vista, for example, Flip3D textures each window to a 3D plane based on vector graphics. Even though the window itself is still raster-based, the plane onto which it is textured is vector-based. As a result, the windows, when rotated, appear flat. In Linux desktops, Compiz Fusion can texture each raster-based workspace onto a 3D vector-based cube. As operating systems evolve, eventually the entire window would be made from 3D vector graphics, so that when rotated, it does not appear "flat". Also, advanced lighting may make 3D graphical user interfaces more aesthetically pleasing.

Graphical models for protein structure - Discrete graphical models for protein structure

Markov random fields, also known as undirected graphical models are common representations for this problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E), a set of random variables X = (X v ) v ∈ V indexed by V, form a Markov random field with respect to G if they satisfy the pairwise Markov property:

Vector-based graphical user interface - Usage in 2D graphical user interfaces

Some Graphical User Interfaces on Operating Systems such as IRIX use vector-based icons. A number of vector-based icon sets are also available for window managers such as GNOME and KDE.

Graphical models for protein structure - Gaussian graphical models of protein structures

Once the model is learned, we can repeat the same step as in the discrete case, to get the density functions at each node, and use analytical form to calculate the free energy. Here, the partition function already has a closed form, so the inference, at least for the Gaussian graphical models is trivial. If the analytical form of the partition function is not available, particle filtering or expectation propagation can be used to approximate Z, and then perform the inference and calculate free energy.

Graphical abstract

A graphical abstract is a graphical or visual equivalent of a written abstract. Graphical abstracts are a single image, designed to help the reader to quickly gain an overview on a scholarly paper, research article, thesis or review: and to quickly ascertain the purpose and results of a given research, as well as the salient details of authors and journal. Graphical abstracts are intended to help facilitate online browsing, as well as help readers quickly identify which papers are relevant to their research interests. Like a video abstract, they are not intended to replace the original research paper, rather to help draw attention to it, increasing its readership.

CUBRID - Graphical

Several graphical user interface tools have been developed for CUBRID:

Media Transfer Protocol - Graphical

Not related to GNOME or KDE is the *NIX graphical MTP-capable media player, gMTP.

IBM AIX - Graphical

The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is AIX's default graphical user interface. As part of Linux Affinity and the free AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications (ATLA), open-source KDE Plasma Workspaces and GNOME desktop are also available.

Graphical abstract - Evidence of effectiveness

There are relatively few studies investigating the efficacy of graphical abstracts at increasing publication impact.

Graphical abstract - Diagram Style

Graphical abstracts, consisting mainly of diagrams, have been utilised since the mid to late 1970s, primarily in the field of chemistry - due to the visual nature of the field. This type of graphical abstract is usually produced by the researchers themselves with the intended audience being other researchers who are already very familiar with the topic, usually using highly technical language and abbreviations with no background context.

Graphical sound - History

Comrade Avraamov conducts now a study in recording of more complicated geometrical figures. For instance, to record graphical representations of the simplest algebraic equations, to draw molecular orbits of some chemical elements. In this research composer is assisted by a group of young employee of the Research Institute for Film and Photo. By the end of December Avraamov will finish his new work and to show it to the film-community. Quite possibly the listening of the abstracts of “Hand Drawn Music” will be organized in radio broadcast" (Kino 1931).

Graphical widget

Graphical user interface builders facilitate the authoring of GUIs in a WYSIWYG manner employing a user interface markup language. They automatically generate all the source code for a widget from general descriptions provided by the developer, usually through direct manipulation.

Graphical abstract - Infographic Style

These graphical abstracts tend to feature text and graphics together in a more visually-appealing way. Infographic style graphical abstracts are usually made with advanced illustrating software, and are therefore usually professionally produced. The intended audience is not limited to any particular level of research training, and can be aimed at expert researchers or the general public. Although, given their emphasis on well-presented graphics, this style is usually intended to engage a broader reader audience than expert researchers.

Graphical lasso - Setting

The graphical lasso estimator is the such that:

Graphical sound

Graphical sound or drawn sound (Fr. son dessiné, Ger. graphische Tonerzeugung,; It. suono disegnato) is a sound recording created from images drawn directly onto film or paper that were then played back using a sound system. There are several different techniques depending on the technology employed, but all are a consequence of the sound-on-film technology and based on the creation of artificial optical polyphonic sound tracks on transparent film.