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Icon (computing) - Hyperlinks

A text hyperlink performs much the same function as the functional computer icon: it provides a direct link to some function or data available on the system. Although they can be customized, these text hyperlinks generally share a standardized recognizable format, blue text with underlining. Hyperlinks differ from the functional computer icons in that they are normally embedded in text, whereas icons are displayed as stand-alone on the screen real estate. They are also displayed in text, either as the link itself or a friendly name, whereas icons are defined as being primarily non-textual.

Reading comprehension - Hyperlinks

Embedded hyperlinks in documents or Internet pages have been found to make different demands on the reader than traditional text. Authors, such as Nicholas Carr, and psychologists, such as Maryanne Wolf, contend that the internet may have a negative impact on attention and reading comprehension. Some studies report increased demands of reading hyperlinked text in terms of cognitive load, or the amount of information actively maintained in one's mind (also see working memory). One study showed that going from about 5 hyperlinks per page to about 11 per page reduced college students’ understanding (assessed by multiple choice tests) of articles about alternative energy. This can be attributed to the decision-making process (deciding whether to click on it) required by each hyperlink, which may reduce comprehension of surrounding text.

Reading comprehension - Hyperlinks

On the other hand, other studies have shown that if a short summary of the link's content is provided when the mouse pointer hovers over it, then comprehension of the text is improved. "Navigation hints" about which links are most relevant improved comprehension. Finally, the background knowledge of the reader can partially determine the effect hyperlinks have on comprehension. In a study of reading comprehension with subjects who were familiar or unfamiliar with art history, texts which were hyperlinked to one another hierarchically were easier for novices to understand than texts which were hyperlinked semantically. In contrast, those already familiar with the topic understood the content equally well with both types of organization.

Hyperlink - XLink: hyperlinks

The W3C Recommendation called XLink describes hyperlinks that offer a far greater degree of functionality than those offered in HTML. These extended links can be multidirectional, linking from, within, and between XML documents. It can also describe simple links, which are unidirectional and therefore offer no more functionality than hyperlinks in HTML.

Hyperlinks in virtual worlds

Hyperlinks are, at andridoa present day realfeatures in virtual particles world platforms, aside from hyperlinks in the in-built chat clients between users' avatars. In the latter 2000s, however, a number of architectures were created for various decentralized virtual world platforms in order to facilitate easier travel of avatars between two or more separately-hosted grids or servers.

HITS algorithm - Algorithm

In the HITS algorithm, the first step is to retrieve the most relevant pages to the search query. This set is called the root set and can be obtained by taking the top pages returned by a text-based search algorithm. A base set is generated by augmenting the root set with all the web pages that are linked from it and some of the pages that link to it. The web pages in the base set and all hyperlinks among those pages form a focused subgraph. The HITS computation is performed only on this focused subgraph. According to Kleinberg the reason for constructing a base set is to ensure that most (or many) of the strongest authorities are included.

Spamdexing - Hidden links

Putting hyperlinks where visitors will not see them to increase link popularity. Highlighted link text can help rank a webpage higher for matching that phrase.

Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 - Section 5365, Civil Suits

Since there is no way to regulate overseas payment processors, section 5365 of the Act allows the United States and state attorneys general to bring civil actions in federal court. The courts have the power to issue temporary restraining orders and preliminary and permanent injunctions to prevent restricted transactions. The only problem with this enormous power is that it is, again, practically useless against payment processors who are entirely overseas. The Act provides for limited civil remedies against "interactive computer services." An Internet service provider can be ordered to remove sites and block hyperlinks to sites that are transmitting money to unlawful gambling sites. ISPs are under no obligation to monitor whether its patrons are sending funds to payment processors or even directly to gambling sites. But once it receives notice from a U.S. Attorney or a state attorney general, the ISP can be forced to appear at a hearing to be ordered to sever its links.

Sophia Amoruso - eBay store

She did this all starting in her bedroom, in 2006 to get some money, the eBay store, Nasty Gal Vintage, blew up in a way Amoruso didn't think possible. Turning into a 100 million dollar yearly revenue business after 6 years, and it grew from there. Amoruso claims to have been banned from eBay in 2008 for posting hyperlinks in feedback to customers and launched Nasty Gal as its own retail website, this would allow the business to continue to grow in a way she couldn't on eBay. She has previously said that she left voluntarily because of the rules preventing sellers from leaving negative feedback for customers. Amoruso was also accused of artificially inflating bids, which she has denied.

World Wide Telecom Web - Brief history

World Wide Telecom Web was conceived by Arun Kumar at IBM India Research Lab during late 2004 and was later joined by fellow researcher Nitendra Rajput in mid-2005. Originally, WWTW was primarily viewed as a novel application of speech technology and VoiceXML standard even though use of VoiceSites for under-privileged was one of the listed benefits. During the course of a year, they refined the vision and built a couple of primitive prototypes of VoiceSite generator application christened VoiGen, with the help of fellow researcher Dipanjan Chakraborty and colleague Sandeep Jindal & Rajiv Goyal. In late 2006, inspired by Prof. C.K. Prahalad and led by Ponani Gopalakrishnan (then the director of IBM India Research Lab), Arun and Nitendra along with Dipanjan and Amit Anil Nanavati got funded for an Exploratory Research project to develop technologies for people towards the Base of the Pyramid. Here, WWTW shot into prominence and got recognized as the most compelling ecosystem for illiterate, low earning population of developing countries such as India. The team reported the work done so far in a Research Report. Soon after Sheetal K. Agarwal joined the team. Together this team designed and built the initial technological building blocks of Telecom Web details of which can be found in publications available at World Wide Telecom Web Publications. This included creation of technology for enabling voice driven workflows spanning across organizational boundaries. Arun proposed the use of out-of-band-signaling mechanism, followed in telecom networks to achieve this. The resulting Hyperspeech Transfer Protocol (HSTP) got designed and created by the team as an HTTP equivalent protocol that enables voice hyperlinks in VoiceSites. The team designed and built the first prototype of this protocol in mid-2007 and reported it in Hypertext Conference in September 2007. The first successful field trial of VoiceSites as a powerful platform for underprivileged population came in the form of Voikiosk system conceived primarily by Nitendra. It is a village portal providing locally relevant content in local language and is available over an ordinary telephone call.

Bitcoin network - Black markets

According to the Internet Watch Foundation, a UK-based charity, bitcoin is used to purchase child pornography, and almost 200 such websites accept it as payment. Bitcoin isn't the sole way to purchase child pornography online, as Troels Oertling, head of the cybercrime unit at Europol, states, "Ukash and paysafecard... have [also] been used to pay for such material." However, the Internet Watch Foundation lists around 30 sites that exclusively accept bitcoins. Some of these sites have shut down, such as a deep web crowdfunding website that aimed to fund the creation of new child porn. Furthermore, hyperlinks to child porn websites have been added to the blockchain as arbitrary data can be included when a transaction is made.

Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com, Inc. - Ruling on motion to dismiss

On March 27, 2000, U.S. District Judge Harry Lindley Hupp ruled on Tickets.com's motion to dismiss. He said that "deep linking by itself (i.e., without confusion of source)" does not necessarily involve unfair competition" under the following conditions: One, there is no confusion as to which website a consumer is accessing, and two, no pages are being duplicated by other websites. He said that "Hyperlinking does not itself involve a violation of the Copyright Act. There is no deception in what is happening. This is analogous to using a library's card index to get reference to particular items, albeit faster and more efficiently." Just as the library's card index enabled users to locate copyrighted books, the hyperlinks enabled users to locate copyrighted webpages.

Electronic grade book

Online grade books record home assignments, so it’s no longer necessary to write them down. Parents can access online daybook accounts from anywhere in Russia and abroad via the internet. This is a good option for business travelers, enabling them to keep track of their children’s academic progress and see what they have learned. The online class register and grade book are connected to the library. The daybook shows the subject of each lesson, subdivided into various sections known as controlled education content elements. For example, children study primitive man and the origins of art during a lesson on primitive society. These elements contain direct hyperlinks to related library materials. To access homework or review any aspect, a student just needs to click on the grade book’s hyperlink. Parents can also keep track of their children’s daily progress. The system also shows academic performance trends.

Encyclopaedia Judaica

The English-language Judaica was also published on CD-ROM. The CD-ROM version has been enhanced by at least 100,000 hyperlinks and several other features, including videos, slide shows, maps, music and Hebrew pronunciations. While the CD-ROM version is still available, the publisher has discontinued it.

Comparison of system dynamics software

Due to concerns over commercial postings on the system dynamics main topic, commercial hyperlinks are specifically NOT active on this list.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol - Technical overview

A web browser is an example of a user agent (UA). Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers (web crawlers), voice browsers, mobile app └─┬─┘ └───────────┬────────────────────────┘└─┬─────────────┘└────────┬──────────────────┘└┬─┘ scheme authority path query fragment As defined in RFC 3986, URIs are encoded as hyperlinks in HTML documents, so as to form interlinked hypertext documents.

Hypermedia - Development tools

Hyperlinks may also be added to data files using most business software via the limited scripting and hyperlinking features built in. Documentation software, such as the Microsoft Office Suite and LibreOffice, allow for hypertext links to other content within the same file, other external files, and URL links to files on external file servers. For more emphasis on graphics and page layout, hyperlinks may be added using most modern desktop publishing tools. This includes presentation programs, such as Microsoft PowerPoint and LibreOffice Impress, add-ons to print layout programs such as Quark Immedia, and tools to include hyperlinks in PDF documents such as Adobe InDesign for creating and Adobe Acrobat for editing. Hyper Publish is a tool specifically designed and optimized for hypermedia and hypertext management. Any HTML editor may be used to build HTML files, accessible by any web browser. CD/DVD authoring tools, such as DVD Studio Pro, may be used to hyperlink the content of DVDs for DVD players or web links when the disc is played on a personal computer connected to the internet.

Microsoft Office 2010 - Language preferences

A Language Preferences interface in Access, Excel, OneNote, Outlook, PowerPoint, Project, Publisher, Visio, and Word is accessible in the Backstage view and replaces the language customization interface seen in previous versions of Office. The new interface provides information about currently installed language packs and their related components, hyperlinks to download additional content, and a new ScreenTip Language feature that allows users to customize the language of tooltips.

Solid PDF Tools - Editing

Solid PDF Tools allows users to edit PDFs by adding custom watermarks and moving page orders. It will also detect hyperlinks and has text mark-up recovery.

Interleaf - Interleaf WorldView

Interleaf Worldview's core functionality is familiar to users of Adobe Acrobat and other Portable Document Format (PDF) viewers, although Worldview preceded it by a year Worldview allowed document sets created with Interleaf's technical publishing tools to be viewed on workstations, Macintoshes, and PCs, retaining page fidelity, and including hyperlinks among the pages

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