A diesel-electric system is an integrated electric propulsion system in which no gas turbines are used and all of the engines are diesel.
Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958, successfully demonstrating the first working example of an integrated circuit on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit. However, Kilby's invention was a hybrid integrated circuit (hybrid IC), rather than a monolithic integrated circuit (monolithic IC) chip. Kilby's IC had external wire connections, which made it difficult to mass-produce.
A turbine-electric system is also possible using gas turbine generators. Some yachts use only gas turbines for integrated electric propulsion without any diesel engines. If electric propulsion is used via electric motor on shaft, or integrated into the main reduction gear driving the shaft, greater power available is realized faster than using diesels. In addition, an on-shaft permanent magnet motor drive system also utilizing gas turbine Prime Movers on the main reduction gear, can also provide electricity when driven by the Prime Movers. The on-shaft permanent magnet electric motors provide propulsion at lower speeds via on-board electrical power generation gas turbine or diesel, at significant fuel savings. If a fleet wide usage is analyzed, significant logistical advantages are realized over time. Compared to diesel, it increases flexibility, versatility and efficiency, with capability of transforming to provide propulsion or electrical power more rapidly, which ever the situation dictates.
Nearly all modern IC chips are metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, built from MOSFETs (metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistors). The MOSFET (also known as the MOS transistor), which was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, made it possible to build high-density integrated circuits. Atalla first proposed the concept of the MOS integrated circuit (MOS IC) chip in 1960, noting that the MOSFET's ease of fabrication made it useful for integrated circuits. In contrast to bipolar transistors which required a number of steps for the p–n junction isolation of transistors on a chip, MOSFETs required no such steps but could be easily isolated from each other. Its advantage for integrated circuits was re-iterated by Dawon Kahng in 1961. The list of IEEE milestones includes the first integrated circuit by Kilby in 1958, Hoerni's planar process and Noyce's planar IC in 1959, and the MOSFET by Atalla and Kahng in 1959.
As it becomes more difficult to manufacture ever smaller transistors, companies are using multi-chip modules, three-dimensional integrated circuits, 3D NAND, package on package, and through-silicon vias to increase performance and reducing size, without having to reduce the size of the transistors.
Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor invented the first true monolithic IC chip. It was a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Noyce's monolithic IC put all components on a chip of silicon and connected them with copper lines. Noyce's monolithic IC was fabricated using the planar process, developed in early 1959 by his colleague Jean Hoerni. In turn, Hoerni's planar process was based on Mohamed Atalla's surface passivation process. Modern IC chips are based on Noyce's monolithic IC, rather than Kilby's hybrid IC.
Following the development of the self-aligned gate (silicon-gate) MOSFET by Robert Kerwin, Donald Klein and John Sarace at Bell Labs in 1967, the first silicon-gate MOS IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits, was developed at Fairchild Semiconductor by Federico Faggin in 1968. The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on a single MOS LSI chip. This led to the inventions of the microprocessor and the microcontroller by the early 1970s. During the early 1970s, MOS integrated circuit technology enabled the very large-scale integration (VLSI) of more than 10,000 transistors on a single chip.
A typical integrated electric propulsion arrangement on larger (e.g. cruise ships) and naval vessels includes both diesel generators and gas turbines. On smaller vessels (which make up the majority of IEP vessels) the engines are typically just diesel. The advantages of gas turbines include much lower weight. and smaller size than diesels of similar power, and much less noise and vibration, but they are efficient only at or near maximum power. Diesel generators have the advantage of high efficiency over a wide range of power levels. Using them in combination allows for the benefits of a full range of operational efficiency, a low-vibration quiet mode of operation, and some reduction in weight and volume relative to a diesel-only arrangement. In naval vessels, a pool of diesel generators are typically used to provide a base load and enough power to achieve cruise speed. The gas turbines are used to provide peak power for higher speeds and may be required to operate weapon systems with high power demands. In passenger ships, one or more gas turbines are used for fast cruising. The diesels provide reliable redundancy and an efficient source of electricity when in port, at anchor, or drifting.
A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic substrates (so-called micromodules), each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid. This idea, which seemed very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy). However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.
Integrated Management “is the process of including Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance in close coordination between business processes, functions, groups, organizations, and systems,” which leads to value creation that cannot be attained through a traditional business model.
The earliest experimental MOS IC to be fabricated was a 16-transistor chip built by Fred Heiman and Steven Hofstein at RCA in 1962. General Microelectronics later introduced the first commercial MOS integrated circuit in 1964, a 120-transistor shift register developed by Robert Norman. By 1964, MOS chips had reached higher transistor density and lower manufacturing costs than bipolar chips. MOS chips further increased in complexity at a rate predicted by Moore's law, leading to large-scale integration (LSI) with hundreds of transistors on a single MOS chip by the late 1960s.
Integrated management is a socially defined concept that is interpreted and understood in a variety of ways. It is however widely accepted as recognizing “nonlinear processes and connectivity between problems” in a managerial context. Integrated management has been defined as encompassing the “effective direction of every aspect of an organization so that the needs and expectations of all stakeholders are equitably satisfied by the best use of all resources”. Characteristics of integrated management are consensus-based decision-making, search for optimal efficiency and the co-existence of both uniformity and diversity within systems. This type of management is holistic and cross-disciplinary in its approach to balancing potential gains and losses.
Advances in IC technology, primarily smaller features and larger chips, have allowed the number of MOS transistors in an integrated circuit to double every two years, a trend known as Moore's law. Moore originally stated it would double every year, but he went on to change the claim to every two years in 1975. This increased capacity has been used to decrease cost and increase functionality. In general, as the feature size shrinks, almost every aspect of an IC's operation improves. The cost per transistor and the switching power consumption per transistor goes down, while the memory capacity and speed go up, through the relationships defined by Dennard scaling (MOSFET scaling). Because speed, capacity, and power consumption gains are apparent to the end user, there is fierce competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries. Over the years, transistor sizes have decreased from 10s of microns in the early 1970s to 10 nanometers in 2017 with a corresponding million-fold increase in transistors per unit area. As of 2016, typical chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 600 mm 2, with up to 25 million transistors per mm 2.
The global challenges people face as a society and as managers are interrelated. Social, economic and environmental issues do not exist in a vacuum, nor are they affixed to one discipline or sector. As societies evolve and become more complex, organizations and management education will need to adapt and offer new modes of learning and managerial knowledge. Hence, the importance of integrated management education – one that tackles issues from a holistic, interdisciplinary perspective – in contemporary institutions cannot be underestimated.
Furthermore, according to research from the Odette School of Business, a holistic, integrated approach to management theory improves business students’ critical thinking and reduces their materialistic and individualistic tendencies.
Management is a social phenomenon “where art, science, and craft meet”. Keeping this in mind, management education is expected to reflect human creativity, complexity and multidimensionality. Integrated management in education differs from conventional functional management education, as it is characterized by the incorporation of: teamwork and team-building exercises; real-time processes (such as simulations and role-playing); team-teaching and guest speakers; multidisciplinary case studies; service learning projects; fieldwork and experiential learning; as well as international and online collaborations.
Human-Centered Design provides an integrated approach to problem solving, commonly used in design and management frameworks that develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem-solving process.
The International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC), of which Mervyn King is chair, was convened in order to aid businesses and investors as they begin to adopt Integrated Reporting. Launched in 2010 by the Prince of Wales with international partners. The IIRC was formerly known as the International Integrated Reporting Committee, being renamed in 2011. The Prince's Accounting for Sustainability Project (A4S) acted as the Secretariat for the IIRC until January 2012.
The integrated design approach incorporates collaborative methods and tools to encourage and enable the specialists in the different areas to work together to produce an integrated design.
Integrated management uses new and existing managerial concepts and tools, while putting emphasis on the systemic processes, stakeholder culture, real-world leadership and emotional intelligence at play within an organization. In contemporary organizations, this approach to management is valued as a strategy to reconciling complex cross-functional challenges. Integrated practices, as opposed to unilateral, specialized practices, are proven to foster open-mindedness and flexibility in individuals and communities. Integrated management promotes a flattening of traditional organizational silos while encouraging a context-sensitive approach to understanding individuals, systems and organizations.