To obtain a licence, the rules require payment of a fee linked to the agency's turnover (r.7) ranging between £250 and £4000 for businesses turning over under £1m to over £10m respectively. Agencies also have to pay for inspections of their work environment in order to obtain licensing approval (r.8). Based on turnover in the same way, the fees range from £1,600 to £2,500.
On April 6, 2008, the Waste Management Licensing Regulations were replaced for England and Wales by the Environmental Permitting Regulations 2007. There are no longer separate regulation regimes for waste management and PPC (Pollution Prevention Control) activities, with both being regulated by way of Environmental Permits.
In the past ten years, Trust House, the trading arm of the Masterton Licensing Trust and other trusts, has distributed $31.150 million to its communities; with the 2016 charitable distribution being $3,483,000.
Several years ago, the Invercargill Licensing Trust, working with all Invercargill school principals, established a goal to pursue initiatives that would lead to Invercargill schools being recognised as leaders in education in New Zealand. A number have since been implemented, supported by Trust funding.
In 1968, the then Mayor of Masterton advocated to the Masterton Licensing Trust that the wasteland on the edge of the town, bordered by two rivers, be converted into a recreational lake and parklands. Over the years since, the Trust has supported the Henley Lake scheme with many donations totalling hundreds of thousand dollars so that today, a lake of 14 hectares, parklands with walking and running tracks, wildlife reserves, and public facilities (for example, a Men’s Shed) support activities generating many hundreds of visitors daily.
Licensees expect that the license will provide them with sales growth. This sales growth may be in the form of growth within existing market or the opportunity to enter a new market. To achieve this, licensees expect that the brand they are licensing has significant brand preference, that it will open doors and ultimately help them meet or exceed their business objectives. The licensing contract forces the licensee to achieve certain sales targets and royalties; therefore, the goal of the licensee is to quickly meet their business objectives, thereby achieving their contract obligations. Royalties are the monies paid to a licensor by the licensee for the right to use the licensed property. It is calculated by multiplying the Royalty Rate by the Net Sales.
Each local authority must set up a Licensing Committee with between ten and fifteen members. It is envisaged that most member level decisions will be made by a sub-committee of three. The Committee can and should have a scheme of delegation for different types of decision; this means that many applications will be decided by officers. The full Committee is expected to receive monitoring reports.
(In Scotland there is a fifth licensing objective - protecting and improving public health)
Founded in 1975, the Flaxmere Licensing Trust was the last of the licensing trusts to be established; over the years it has supported its low income community with wide-ranging grants to education in the village of Flaxmere. During the last 20 years, the Trust has given $4.7 million to the Flaxmere community.
For 56 years, the Mataura Licensing Trust has been investing in its community, returning profits to its customers and creating jobs. It has been instrumental in future-proofing sporting amenities, as well as supporting the arts, education and destination events, all of which directly or indirectly bolster the local economy. Gore’s multi-sports complex is the flagship of its endeavours – a venue featuring the latest water-turf technology for hockey, a four-court event centre, a short-course Olympic ice skating rink and a two-pool aquatic centre established in partnership with local Government and sports groups. The complex has hosted national tournaments and events, such as the Young Farmer of the Year.
The Licensing Act sets out four licensing objectives of no preferential order which must be taken into account and adhered to. They are:
Apart from benefits to licensors, there are benefits to licensees as well. Licensees lease the rights to a brand for incorporation into their merchandise, but do not share ownership in it. Having access to major national and global brands, and the logos and trademarks associated with those brands, gives the licensee significant benefits. The most important of these is the marketing power the brand brings to the licensee’s products. When brand managers enter or extend into new product categories via licensing they create an opportunity for a licensee to grow their company. Below is an example of the licensed product process steps:
Origins of replication represent start sites for DNA replication and so their "firing" must be regulated to maintain the correct karyotype of the cell in question. The origins are required to fire only once per cell cycle, an observation that led to the postulated existence of licensing factors by biologists in the first place. If the origins were not carefully regulated then DNA replication could be restarted at that origin giving rise to multiple copies of a section of DNA. This could be damaging to cells and could have detrimental effects on the organism as a whole.
Character Licensing is another big licensing segment of brand licensing in India. The big players in the character licensing industry in India are Disney India, Viacom 18 and Cartoon Network Enterprises. Characters licensed out by Disney India include Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. Viacom has brought in popular characters from Nickelodeon like Dora the Explorer and SpongeBob SquarePants. Cartoon Network boasts of a portfolio including characters such as Ben 10, Powerpuff Girls, Mr. Bean, Roll no. 21, We Bare Bears.
According to the International Licensing Industry Merchandisers' Association (LIMA), global licensed merchandise sales was $272.2 billion in 2016, versus $262.2 billion in 2015.
The Invercargill Licensing Trust Act 1944 came into force on 17 April 1944. The Masterton Licensing Trust Act followed in December 1947, and the Licensing Amendment Act (with provision for a further poll on trust control) in 1949.
The control that licensing factors exert over the cycle represents a flexible system, necessary so that different cell types in an organism can control the timing of DNA replication to their own cell cycles.
Brand Licensing in Italy started in the seventies with very few Licensing Agencies. Apart from Disney which had its own dedicated office in the market, all the other big Entertainment majors were represented by independent agencies. One of these companies named DIC 2 (Distribution International Characters), founded in 1973 by Gianfranco Mari contributed to create the licensing business in Italy and set big phenomena as He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, Marvel Comics, Star Wars, Hanna & Barbera characters, Zorro, Asterix and so on. DIC 2 is still one of the biggest independent agencies in Italy, representing different cartoon characters and famous brands.
The New Zealand parliamentary debates during the introduction of the first licensing trust legislation suggest the New Zealand legislation was based on the British "Carlisle Scheme" that had been established during the First World War on the Scottish border, but there were also significant differences.. H G R Mason was Minister of Justice from 1935 to 1949 (and again from 1957 to 1960) and responsible for the licensing legislation. He shepherded the licensing trusts acts through Parliament, and was strongly committed to the concept of licensing trust.