Product and process lifecycle management (PPLM) is an alternate genre of PLM in which the process by which the product is made is just as important as the product itself. Typically, this is the life sciences and advanced specialty chemicals markets. The process behind the manufacture of a given compound is a key element of the regulatory filing for a new drug application. As such, PPLM seeks to manage information around the development of the process in a similar fashion that baseline PLM talks about managing information around development of the product.
Many software solutions have been developed to organize and integrate the different phases of a product's lifecycle. PLM should not be seen as a single software product but a collection of software tools and working methods integrated together to address either single stages of the lifecycle or connect different tasks or manage the whole process. Some software providers cover the whole PLM range while others single niche application. Some applications can span many fields of PLM with different modules within the same data model. An overview of the fields within PLM is covered here. The simple classifications do not always fit exactly; many areas overlap and many software products cover more than one area or do not fit easily into one category. It should also not be forgotten that one of the main goals of PLM is to collect knowledge that can be reused for other projects and to coordinate simultaneous concurrent development of many products. It is about business processes, people and methods as much as software application solutions. Although PLM is mainly associated with engineering tasks it also involves marketing activities such as product portfolio management (PPM), particularly with regards to new product development (NPD). There are several life-cycle models in industry to consider, but most are rather similar. What follows below is one possible life-cycle model; while it emphasizes hardware-oriented products, similar phases would describe any form of product or service, including non-technical or software-based products:
Product lifecycle management (PLM) should be distinguished from 'product life-cycle management (marketing)' (PLCM). PLM describes the engineering aspect of a product, from managing descriptions and properties of a product through its development and useful life; whereas, PLCM refers to the commercial management of life of a product in the business market with respect to costs and sales measures.
During 1982-83, Rockwell International developed initial concepts of PDM and PLM for the B-1B bomber program. The system called Engineering Data System (EDS) was augmented to interface with Computervision and CADAM systems to track part configurations and lifecycle of components and assemblies. Computervison later released implementing only the PDM aspects as the lifecycle model was specific to Rockwell and aerospace needs.
LIFECYCLE Fundraising is a fundraising organisation dedicated to working with children's charities, which enables individual and corporate members to organise fundraising events of their choosing and to specify how and where the funds will be allocated. LIFECYCLE provides services such as sponsorship forms, web space and ticketing facilities, as well as promoting these events among its members.
The Broadband Lifecycle is a model for looking at the planning, implementation, and adoption of broadband networks, providing a framework for understanding the natural progression and sound business planning to drive local economic development through broadband (high-speed Internet networks). It has been utilized by multiple North-American States since 2010.
In 2006, as well as continuing to fund reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka, LIFECYCLE is expanding its operations with new projects in countries to include Bulgaria, Nepal, India and Madagascar. LIFECYCLE has completed the following projects in the first quarter of 2006:
Developed by Strategic Networks Group in the late 2000s as an alternative means to view broadband deployments, the Broadband Lifecycle is a departure from the dominant economic model of broadband network operators’ that relies on the “supply side” assumption that if a network is built adoption will follow.
Lifecycle management may refer to:
As of 2009, ICT development (EU-funded PROMISE project 2004–2008) has allowed PLM to extend beyond traditional PLM and integrate sensor data and real time 'lifecycle event data' into PLM, as well as allowing this information to be made available to different players in the total lifecycle of an individual product (closing the information loop). This has resulted in the extension of PLM into closed-loop lifecycle management (CL 2 M).
The final phase of the lifecycle involves managing "in-service" information. This can include providing customers and service engineers with the support and information required for repair and maintenance, as well as waste management or recycling. This can involve the use of tools such as Maintenance, Repair and Operations Management (MRO) software.
In the first quarter of 2006, True Volunteer Foundation expanded its operations to include new corporate social responsibility and private wealth management programmes. True Volunteer Foundation has recently become a registered charity in the United Kingdom and was registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales on 19 April 2006. Now Lifecycle has become part of a larger organisation which is called True volunteer Foundation. It has charitable status, and so has become a fundraising organisation that is "feeding" itself. That is to say it is now a charity supporting itself and "partner" charities, and seems to have positioned itself as if it had a large charity status. Its web site claims support from the Royal Family and sporting personalities, and although it may be doing good works in many countries, seems to apply exaggeration and spin. True Volunteer Foundation is also split into five other categories including Greencycle, Lifecycle, and other "cycles" and "Charity Levels", incorporating very diverse objectives, as yet not apparent on the Charity Commission web pages.
LIFECYCLE's focus in 2005 was on the areas most affected by the Tsunami disaster, particularly in the country of Sri Lanka. Through a combination of fundraising events and donations from members, LIFECYCLE was able to provide funding for various projects, including:
The lifecycle of the black-legged tick, commonly called the deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) comprises three growth stages: the larva, nymph and adult.
The typical lifecycle for ''T. spiralis'' involves humans, pigs, and rodents. A pig becomes infected when it eats infectious cysts in raw meat, often porcine carrion or a rat (sylvatic cycle). A human becomes infected by consuming raw or undercooked infected pork (domestic cycle). In the stomach, the cysts from infected undercooked meat are acted on by pepsin and hydrochloric acid, which help release the larvae from the cysts into the stomach. The larvae then migrate to the small intestine, and burrow into the intestinal mucosa, where they molt four times before becoming adults.
Most sturgeon spawn in fresh water and migrate to salt water to mature. The Chinese sturgeon can be considered a large freshwater fish, although it spends part of its lifecycle in seawater, like the salmon, except Chinese sturgeon spawn multiple times throughout their lives.
Knowledge of the lifecycle of ''C. rufifacies is crucial in determining the post mortem'' interval for applications related to medicocriminal entomology. Accurate developmental and successional data for the species can significantly aid in legal investigations. C. rufifacies is especially important in these determinations due to its highly predictable developmental time and low degree of variation in larval development. The lifecycle of ''C. rufifacies'' is characterized by holometabolous development, consisting of egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. The entire lifecycle takes 190 to 598 hours depending on temperature.
The female cotton bollworm can lay several hundred eggs, distributed on various parts of the plant. Under favourable conditions, the eggs can hatch into larvae within three days and the whole lifecycle can be completed in just over a month.
The lifecycle of ''D. repens'' consists of five larval stages in a vertebral host and an arthropod (mosquito) intermediate host and vector. In the first stage, mated adult female worms produce thousands of microfilariae (larvae) into the circulation daily, which are ingested by mosquitoes in a blood meal. Larvae develop into infective larvae within the mosquito over the next 10–16 days, depending on environmental conditions, before being reintroduced back into a new host. Microfilariae undergo secondary developmental changes in the insect. For the final two stages of development, third-stage larvae are inoculated back into a vertebral host during an act of feeding. The adults of ''D. repens'' reside in the subcutaneous tissues of dogs and cats, where they mature in 6–7 months. Adult worms are 1–2 mm in diameter (females are 25–30 cm in length, the males being shorter).
This simplified lifecycle is, of course, insufficient for species which infect vertebrate and invertebrate hosts which do not directly feed on one another, necessitating an even more complex cycle. For instance, Hepatozoon sipedon infects mosquitoes and snakes, but since snakes do not typically feed on mosquitoes, a third, intermediate host is required, in this case a frog. The frog ingests the infected mosquito, and the snake acquires the infection by feeding on the now-infected frog. Another mosquito can then feed on the snake, thus continuing the lifecycle.