The "March March march" is a 30-mile walk from March to Cambridge, which has been walked in the month of March by students and academics from the University of Cambridge since 1979. The marchers sing the "March March March March".
According to Jacek Dehnel, he was supposed to make a speech at the opening of the march at a square on Skłodowska Street, however as marchers were faced with violence even prior to the official start of the march and the riot atmosphere prevented this.
The march's major cities were Friesach and Villach. In the tenth century, a so-called Carantanian march (called the "march of Carinthia" because it was the march [i.e. frontier district] of the new Carinthian duchy) broke off from Carinthia. The Carantanian march was later to become the Duchy of Styria. The only known Carinthian margrave from this period — though many counts are known — is Markward III, who was a preses de Carinthia.
At around 5 in the evening the march ended, following the dispersal of far-right protesters by police who used pepper spray and stun grenades. To avoid being attacked as they left the march, some marchers hid LGBT flags and removed their makeup, in an effort to avoid standing out.
The March helped the Metrorail system set an estimated single day record of 400,000 trips, in part because the Unions paid to keep metro free all morning. The estimate was identical to the one reported, also as a single day record, for the 4/29/1980 Washington for Jesus march. The record would last until the day of the 1984 Fourth of July Beach Boys concert on the Mall.
Responding to Khan's allegations that an army chief received a BMW automobile from Nawaz Sharif, ISPR director-general Asim Saleem Bajwa called the claims "baseless and unfounded" on 20 August. Bajwa said in an ISPR statement that the "building in the Red Zone are symbol[s] of state and being protected by [the] army therefore [their] sanctity must be respected", adding that the "situation requires patience, wisdom and sagacity from all stakeholders to resolve prevailing impasse through meaningful dialogue in larger national and public interest". At 12:38 am, the Parliament House lights were turned off and the Ministry of Law control room was taken over by the Pakistan Army. PTI protesters reached Parliament House about 3:30 am. Khan addressed the crowd, saying that "[he] will wait for [the prime minister's] resignation outside the parliament till the evening, after [which he] will march to Prime Minister House". The chairman announced that the sit-in would resume at 4 pm. At 12:48 pm, Sharif arrived in Islamabad to attend the National Assembly session in Parliament House as Qadri told his supporters to block the building's exits until Sharif resigned. No PTI, PML-Q or AML lawmakers attended the assembly session. Although the prime minister did not address the house, representatives of the opposition parties rallied their support for the Sharif government. With protesters outside the Supreme Court building, judges were reportedly trapped in the building.
The AFL-CIO's Solidarity Day march in Washington, D.C., in September 1981, came a few weeks into the PATCO strike, and drew 260,000 to half a million union people. The solidarity march was even bigger than the great 1968 march. In other ways the march was a new experience in post-war Washington. Because, though many groups and parties supported the demonstration, it was overwhelmingly a demonstration of organized labor. It was the first major demonstration to have been organized for decades by the AFL-CIO.
Khan's rally inched its way through the city of Lahore at a snail's pace via the Mall Road, Faisal Chowk, Data Darbar, Bhatti Chowk, Azadi Chowk and Minar-e-Pakistan, Niazi Chowk, Ravi Bridge and Shahdaran, reaching the Grand Trunk Road leading to Islamabad. The delay resulted after the milestone destinations of Data Darbar, Bhatti Chowk, Azadi Chowk and Niazi Chowk were included in the rally route at a later time, after the march had begun.
At 2:01 am on 16 August, the march reached its destination at the Zero Point in Islamabad. At about 2:52 am the PTI leadership began their Islamabad dharna (sit-in), where Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad addressed protesters. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chief Minister Pervez Khattak took the stage at 3:23 am to confirm the support of the "Pakhtoon nation" for Khan's march. Khattak's speech was followed by former foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi's speech at 3:42 am and the Javed Hashmi at 4 am, who called for the resignation of Nawaz and Shahbaz Sharif from the federal and Punjab government. Khan took to the stage in heavy rain at 4:09 am, reiterating Hashmi's demands for the prime minister to resign. Khan said that his party's protests would continue until "Nawaz Sharif [resigns] and announces [new] elections". He ended his speech by promising to speak again at 3 pm. Khan left for his Bani Gala residence after the speech reportedly for ill health; many PTI protesters took Khan's departure negatively. Soon afterwards, many PTI followers went home and the number of protesters fell sharply during the night. The PML-N government alleged that Khan lacked concern for his workers, "[toiling] on streets faced by torrential rains all throughout the night". The PML-N told Khan that Khyber Pakhtunkhwa chief minister Pervez Khattak should not have abandoned his province, where 18 people died from heavy rain in Peshawar. At 3 pm, PTI protesters waited for Khan to make his scheduled speech; he addressed the media from his home at 6:30 pm, demanding the immediate resignation of Shahbaz Sharif as chief minister of Punjab. In his absence, Shah Mehmood Qureshi addressed the crowd at the rally venue and Pervez Khattak left for his province. Khan arrived at the venue at 7:30 pm, addressing the protesters at 7:44 pm and promising that he would spend the night with them.
The rally reached its destination in Lahore at Shahdaran at about 1:15 am on 15 August, where the PTI chief addressed supporters at about 2:20 am. The procession took more than half a day to leave Lahore, and the PAT's parallel protest march had reached Gujranwala by then. At 3:18 am, the Inqilab march headed to Wazirabad and reached Kharian in Gujrat District at 6:55 am; the PTI rally reached Gujranwala at 7:15 am. At about 12:10 pm, PTI activists were pelted with stones by PML-N workers as they passed an area with a PML-N party office. The PTI convoy was on its way out of Gujranwala at the Sheranwala Bridge, and at least 4 PTI activists were injured. The ensuing riot was controlled by local police, and no PML-N worker was injured or arrested. The opposition Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan (JI) condemned the PML-N workers identified in footage of the clash, and PML-Q leaders Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi held Prime Minister Sharif and Punjab chief minister Shahbaz Sharif responsible for the attack on the PTI cavalcade. The PTI convoy was again pelted with stones by PML-N workers at the Pindi bypass outside Gujranwala. The party posted pictures on Twitter of PML-N workers standing on a police van and throwing stones, alleging that the Gujranwala police were aware of the government workers' malicious intent. PML-N workers were prepared at the Rahwali Cantonment to intercept and pelt the PTI convoy, while PPP leader Qamar Zaman Kaira expressed concern that PML-N workers might attack the convoy if it proceeded through Ghakhar Mandi. About 2 kilometers outside Ghakhar Mandi, at 3:35 pm, police with Khan's convoy asked him to leave his "Azadi bus" and ride in a faster, bullet-proof Toyota Land Cruiser. PAT chief Qadri also advised Khan to avoid known PML-N strongholds.
Clashes broke out on 30 August, as protesters tried to march toward the prime minister's house. Although Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri said that the protest would remain peaceful, protesters tried to force their way in. Police stepped back initially, but eventually began using tear gas. More than 500 people, including women, children, police officers and journalists, were injured. Protesters broke through the Parliament House fence, but the army prevented the building from being breached. Khan and Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi blamed police use of chemical weapons for the Parliament House incident. Clashes were also reported in Lahore between PTI supporters and Punjab Police, and the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) announced a day of mourning in Karachi. MQM chief Altaf Hussain asked Sharif to resign.
Although the Azadi march was due to begin at Khan's residence at Zaman Park in Lahore at 10 am on 14 August, it was delayed until 12:30 pm when the PTI chairman addressed the crowds outside his house. Moments later, the rally began marching towards Islamabad. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chief Minister Pervez Khattak left with a convoy of supporters from Peshawar for Islamabad. At 5:34 pm Khattak's convoy joined PTI cavalcades from Charsadda, Swabi and Nowshera on the motorway to Islamabad, reaching the provincial interchange at Attock at 6:23 pm and reaching Islamabad at 8:24 pm.
In 976, the Emperor Otto II made his nephew Otto I Duke of Bavaria and separated the Carinthian march and the other marches from the duchy. He made Carinthia a duchy for the Liutpoldinger Henry, who acted as a sort of "chief of the border police," controlling Istria, Friuli, and Carniola.
After he in turn became King of all East Francia, Arnulf created a march of Carinthia. Alongside it were the marches of Istria, Austria, and Carniola. The southernmost marches, Carinthia and Carniola, were especially susceptible to Magyar raids. In 901, just two years after their first contact with western Europe, Carinthia was ravaged by the Magyars. In 952, Carinthia was placed under the Duchy of Bavaria, as were Carniola, Istria, and Friuli.
At 3:50 pm on 18 August, the Lahore High Court Bar Association submitted a petition to the Supreme Court against the marches and Khan's PTI-led civil-disobedience movement. The other opposition parties distanced themselves from Khan's civil-disobedience movement, and former president Asif Ali Zardari said that Khan was using "unconstitutional means to pursue his goals [to] threaten democracy". At 6:53 pm PTI vice-president Shah Mehmood Qureshi addressed the media after a meeting of the PTI core committee, saying that all PTI lawmakers had decided to resign from the National Assembly and the party decided to withdraw its representatives from the Punjab and Sindh assemblies. However, Qureshi stressed that PTI lawmakers in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa assembly would only resign after talks with the party's coalition members in the provincial assembly. At 8:38 pm, Khan addressed the rally at the Kashmir Highway. About 8:54 pm, he announced that "he himself [would] lead the march towards [the] 'Red Zone'" at 6 pm the following day. The Red Zone in Islamabad houses the diplomatic enclave and embassies, Parliament, government offices and the presidential and prime ministerial palaces, which had been protected by police and blocked with shipping containers. The protesters numbered several hundred thousand.
The quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo (one of the most famous ras), Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March, while the Duce was waiting in Milan. He did not participate in the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers, and he comfortably went to Rome the next day. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included the Marquis Dino Perrone Compagni and Ulisse Igliori.
The march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men, but the King in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment. Mussolini was asked to form his cabinet on 29 October 1922, while some 25,000 Blackshirts were parading in Rome. Mussolini thus legally reached power, in accordance with the Statuto Albertino, the Italian Constitution. The March on Rome was not the seizure of power which Fascism later celebrated but rather the precipitating force behind a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution. This transition was made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation. Many business and financial leaders believed it would be possible to manipulate Mussolini, whose early speeches and policies emphasized free market and laissez faire economics. This proved overly optimistic, as Mussolini's corporatist view stressed total state power over businesses as much as over individuals, via governing industry bodies ("corporations") controlled by the Fascist party, a model in which businesses retained the responsibilities of property, but few if any of the freedoms. By 1934 Mussolini claimed to have nationalized "three-fourths of the Italian economy, industrial and agricultural", more than any other nation except the Soviet Union.
On 24 October 1922, Mussolini declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy." Meanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On 26 October, the former prime minister Antonio Salandra warned current Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini would govern quietly at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Luigi Facta (who had resigned but continued to hold power) ordered a state of siege for Rome. Having had previous conversations with the King about the repression of fascist violence, he was sure the King would agree. However, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign the military order. On 29 October, the King handed power to Mussolini, who was supported by the military, the business class, and the right-wing.
At 1:40 am on 19 August, PTI leader Shah Mehmood Qureshi announced that he had received the resignation of all PTI members of the National Assembly. Muttahida Qaumi Movement chief Altaf Hussain asked Khan to reconsider his decision to enter the Red Zone, fearing that his party's march towards Parliament might lead to "confrontation" and "bloodshed". At 10:58 am, during the morning session of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) assembly, opposition members made a no-confidence motion against the PTI leader and KP chief minister Pervez Khattak. The motion was made after opposition members feared the dissolution of the KP assembly, although Khattak had earlier ruled out such a dissolution. However, the motion was signed by 46 MPAs and submitted to the speaker of the KP assembly. The PML-N leadership allowed PTI and PAT workers to protest "on express conditions that the Red Zone will not be breached". However, federal railways minister and PML-N member Khawaja Saad Rafique remained dismissive of the PTI's assurance that the march would be peaceful. Opposition leader and PPP member Khursheed Shah said that all parties were united for democracy and supported dialogue with PTI and PAT leaders. According to Shah, he had unsuccessfully tried to meet the leaders until 3 am the previous night. After a PTI core committee meeting, the party leadership decided "not to partake in any dialogue and to continue marching to the Red Zone". PPP chief and former president Asif Ali Zardari consultated other opposition parties, calling the PTI decision a bad omen. Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan addressed the nation at 5:30 pm, announcing that the government was ready to recount votes in 20 constituencies. This negated his earlier statement that the PTI demands were beyond government control: "from four to 10 [constituencies] and then a complete audit of elections". He said that the PTI was unable to live up to its promise to gather a million people, and Khan did not stand by his word to "not [move] into the Red Zone". Nisar described the three tiers of security in the Red Zone: police, Ranger paramilitary forces and the armed forces. The first army contingent reached the Red Zone at 7:25 pm and took over security for the prime minister's house at 7:38 pm. The Islamabad police took up positions at the entrance to the barricaded zone.
The Madras Government took a series of measures to bring an end to the march. It ordered the district officers to organize public meetings to persuade people upon the "impracticability" of the march and issued orders to arrest the participants of the march. Other preventive measures included, censoring news items related to the march and taking actions against the editors of the nationalist newspapers. Parents were warned not to send their children to participate in the satyagraha. The telegrams of the volunteers were confiscated, and the Government servants were cautioned about the consequences of participating in the march.