Another method of calculating markup is based on percentage of cost. This method eliminates the two-step process above and incorporates the ability of discount pricing.
These examples show the difference between adding a percentage of a number to a number and asking of what number is this number X% of. If the markup has to include more than just profit, such as overhead, it can be included as such: *cost × 1.25 = sale price
Below shows markup as a percentage of the cost added to the cost to create a new total (i.e. cost plus).
WML documents are XML documents that validate against the WML DTD (Document Type Definition) . The W3C Markup Validation service (http://validator.w3.org/) can be used to validate WML documents (they are validated against their declared document type).
Stand-off markup is similar to using joins, except that there is no privileged hierarchy: each part of the document is given a label (or might be referred to by an offset), and the document is constructed by pointing to the content from markup that 'stands off' from the content (possibly in an entirely different file), and might contain no content itself. The TEI guidelines identify the unity of the elements as a primary advantage of stand-off markup over joins, in addition to the ability to produce and distribute the annotations separately from the text, possibly even by different authors applying markup to a read-only document, allowing collaborative approaches to markup by a divide and conquer strategy.
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a descendant of GML. While DCF does not directly handle SGML, there is an SGML translator available as a separate product.
IBM's Generalized Markup Language (GML) is a descriptive markup layer describing the logical structure of a document. Both SCRIPT/VS and the GML Starter Set are part of IBM's Document Composition Facility (DCF), used in the System/370 platform and successors. The Starter Set is a macro language encapsulating a set of SCRIPT commands. The tag sets of the BookMaster and BookManager BUILD/MVS products are built on a foundation of the GML Starter Set syntax and implementation.
Validation of stand-off markup is very challenging. In addition, maintenance may be a problem, though Eggert & Schmidt report that separating markup and text can result in overall simplification and increased maintainability.
In the recent years, a number of small and largely unstandardized markup languages have been developed to allow authors to create formatted text via web browsers, such as the ones used in wikis and in web forums. These are sometimes called lightweight markup languages. Markdown and the markup language used by Wikipedia are examples of such wiki markup.
In Scribe, markup was introduced with an @ sign, followed either by a Begin-End block or by a direct token invocation:
SGML has features for reducing the number of characters required to mark up a document, which must be enabled in the SGML Declaration. SGML processors need not support every available feature, thus allowing applications to tolerate many types of inadvertent markup omissions; however, SGML systems usually are intolerant of invalid structures. XML is intolerant of syntax omissions, and does not require a DTD for checking well-formedness.
The codes enclosed in angle-brackets are markup instructions (known as tags), while the text between these instructions is the actual text of the document. The codes, , and are examples of semantic markup, in that they describe the intended purpose or the meaning of the text they include. Specifically, means "this is a first-level heading", means "this is a paragraph", and means "this is an emphasized word or phrase". A program interpreting such structural markup may apply its own rules or styles for presenting the various pieces of text, using different typefaces, boldness, font size, indentation, colour, or other styles, as desired. For example, a tag such as "h1" (header level 1) might be presented in a large bold sans-serif typeface in an article, or it might be underscored in a monospaced (typewriter-style) document – or it might simply not change the presentation at all.
A common feature of many markup languages is that they intermix the text of a document with markup instructions in the same data stream or file. This is not necessary; it is possible to isolate markup from text content, using pointers, offsets, IDs, or other methods to co-ordinate the two. Such "standoff markup" is typical for the internal representations that programs use to work with marked-up documents. However, embedded or "inline" markup is much more common elsewhere. Here, for example, is a small section of text marked up in HTML:
There is considerable blurring of the lines between the types of markup. In modern word-processing systems, presentational markup is often saved in descriptive-markup-oriented systems such as XML, and then processed procedurally by implementations. The programming in procedural-markup systems, such as TeX, may be used to create higher-level markup systems that are more descriptive in nature, such as LaTeX.
The idea of using markup language, in which meta-information about the document and its formatting were contained within the document itself, first saw widespread use in a program called RUNOFF; Scribe contained the first robust implementation of declarative markup language.
Committees do not change the texts of the bills they mark up. Instead, committees vote on amendments that their members want to recommend that the House adopt when the House considers the bill on the floor. The committee concludes a markup not by voting on the bill as a whole, but by voting on a motion to order the bill reported to the House with the amendments that the committee has approved. A majority of the committee must be present when this final vote occurs. For all other stages of markups, committees may set their own quorum requirements, so long as that quorum is at least one-third of the committee's membership.
Markup languages optimized for computer-to-computer communication include MathML, OpenMath, and OMDoc. These are designed for clarity, parseability and to minimize ambiguity, at the price of verbosity. However, the verbosity makes them clumsier for humans to type directly.
Although usually documented as yielding italic and bold text, most lightweight markup processors output semantic HTML elements and instead. Monospaced text may either result in semantic or presentational elements. Few languages make a distinction, e.g. Textile, or allow the user to configure the output easily, e.g. Texy.
LMLs sometimes differ for multi-word markup where some require the markup characters to replace the inter-word spaces (infix). Some languages require a single character as prefix and suffix, other need doubled or even tripled ones or support both with slightly different meaning, e.g. different levels of emphasis.