Currently, more than 100 NAMUR recommendations and worksheets are available.
An important element in the publication of NAMUR’s work are NAMUR recommendations and worksheets. They describe procedures, provide support material like check lists and define requirements related to equipment and systems. These documents should not be regarded as standards or guidelines, but rather describe the current state-of-the-art technology. They serve as a basis for discussions with equipment manufacturers and influence international standardization activities. Among others, involvement took place in the development of standards related to the 4–20 mA current loop, NAMUR sensors (e.g., IEC 60947-5-6 ), NAMUR solenoid mounting plates (VDI/VDE 3845, ISO 5211 ), and Profibus.
The forts were built of non-reinforced concrete but this could only be poured in daylight, which caused weak joints between each pour. A citadel was built and covered by 3 – of concrete; caserne walls which were less vulnerable, had concrete of 1.5 m thickness, inside a defended ditch 8 m wide. The entrance had a long access ramp at the rear facing Namur, protected by a tambour with gun embrasures perpendicular to the entry, a rolling drawbridge retracting laterally over a 3.5 m pit equipped with grenade launchers, an entrance grille and a 57 mm gun firing along the axis of the gate. The forts at Liège and Namur had 171 heavy guns, with each fort equipped with 5–8 Krupp guns of 120 mm, 150 mm and 210 mm calibre, which were the most modern armaments available in 1888, mounted in retractable armoured steel turrets made in France, Belgium and Germany. Three smaller retractable turrets were built in the triangular forts and four in the quadrilateral forts, with 57 mm guns for short-range defence and 6–9 more 57 mm guns were mounted in casemates to defend the ditches.
The Meuse valley was a route by which France or Germany could be invaded and after the Franco-Prussian War, General Henri Alexis Brialmont fortified the valley at Liège and Namur, to deter France and Germany from violating Belgian sovereignty. The Fortified Position of Namur (FPN) was built from 1888–1892, about 7 km from the centre of Namur, to a standard design of triangular and quadrilateral shapes, to minimize the number of defensive batteries in the fort ditches, with the point facing outwards. On the left bank of the Meuse lay the modernised forts of Fort de Malonne, Fort de Saint-Héribert and Fort de Suarlée, the unmodernised Fort d'Emines and Fort de Cognelée and the modernized Fort de Marchovelette. On the right bank were Fort de Maizeret, Fort d'Andoy and Fort de Dave, all modernized. The obsolete Citadel of Namur in the town became redundant.
The psychiatric hospital of Beau Vallon, established in Saint-Servais in 1914, is also part of the Saint-Luc - UCLouvain hospital group as well as the UCLouvain Namur site, as a training centre for medical assistants since 1974, and as a research centre in psychiatric medicine.
Margaret became Marchioness of Namur after the death of her brother Henry II, Marquis of Namur in 1229, who had succeeded another brother, Philip II. Their grandfather had received the county as an inheritance as a nephew of Henry IV, Count of Luxembourg (Henry I of Namur). Margaret and her husband Henry I of Vianden (Henry III of Namur) ruled Namur until 1237 when they had to transfer Namur to Margaret's brother Baldwin II of Courtenay. Henry and Margaret continued ruling Vianden. Henry V, Count of Luxembourg (1216 – 1281), maternal grandson of Henry IV, Count of Luxembourg (Henry I of Namur), invaded Namur and ruled it 1256-1264 as Henry IV (or III ?). Baldwin sold Namur in c. 1263 to his cousin Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders and Henry was removed by military force but they made peace with family marriage.
The first modern forts at Namur were built between 1888 and 1892 at the initiative of Belgian General Henri Alexis Brialmont. The forts made a belt around Namur at a distance of about 7 km from the city center. Following the Franco-Prussian War, both Germany and France had extensively fortified their new frontiers in Alsace and Lorraine. Belgium's comparatively undefended Meuse valley provided an attractive alternative route for forces seeking invade either France or Germany. The plains of Flanders could provide transportation, food and fuel for an invading force. Brialmont recognized that France and Germany would once again go to war. Fortifications at Liège and Namur might dissuade France and Germany from fighting their next war in Belgium. The Liège fortifications were intended to deter Germany, while the Namur forts were to dissuade the French.
The Belgians rebuilt seven of the Namur forts from 1929. The improvements addressed the shortcomings revealed by the battles of Liège and Namur. Improvements included replacing 21 cm howitzers with longer-range 15 cm guns, 15 cm howitzers with 120 mm guns, and adding machine guns. Generating plants, ventilation, sanitation and troop accommodations were improved, as well as communications. The work incorporated alterations that had already been made by the Germans during their occupation of the forts in World War I. Most notably, the upgraded forts received defended air intake towers, intended to look like water towers, that could function as observation posts and emergency exits. The remaining two forts were used for ammunition storage.
The Fortified Position of Namur was conceived by a commission charged with recommending options for the rebuilding of Belgium's defenses following World War I. The 1927 report recommended the construction of a line of new fortifications to the east of the Meuse. These new forts included Fort Eben-Emael on the Belgian-Dutch-German border, designated Position Fortifiée de Liège I (PFL I), backed up by the renovated Liège fortress ring, PFL II. The Position Fortifiée de Namur (PFN) was a further fallback, while securing the road and rail crossings of the Meuse at Namur.
The forts were built using a small set of basic plans, with standardized details. Forts were typically triangular to minimize the number of defensive batteries in the forts' defensive ditches, presenting their apex to the enemy. Construction began on 28 July 1888. The work was carried out by a French consortium, Hallier, Letellier Frères and Jules Barratoux. All of the new forts were built of concrete, a new material for the time, and were equipped with the most modern arms available in 1888. The concrete was placed in mass, without reinforcement. Lack of useful nighttime illumination in the 1880s meant that concrete could only be placed in daylight, causing weak joints between partially cured daily pours. The forts' heavy 12 cm, 15 cm and 21 cm guns were made by the German Krupp firm, and were housed in armored steel turrets made by various French, Belgian and German firms. The forts of Liège and Namur mounted a total of 171 heavy guns, at an overall cost of 29 million francs. Lighter 57 mm guns provided close defense. The forts were each equipped with a steam-powered electrical generating plant powering lights, pumps and searchlights.
Namur was invested by the German Second (von Bülow) and Third (von Hausen) Armies with approximately 107,000 men on 16 August 1914. Namur was garrisoned by about 37,000 in the forts and under the Belgian 4th Division (Michel). The Belgian goal was to hold at Namur until the French Fifth Army could arrive. After attacking the Fort de Marchovelette on 20 August, the Second Army started general fire the next day. At the same time, hoping to prevent the French Fifth Army from reinforcing, the Second Army attacked in the direction of Charleroi. This action was successful, with only one French regiment making it to Namur.
The Namur forts presented less of a check to the German advance than the Liège forts, as the Germans quickly assimilated the lessons of Liège and applied them to the nearly identical fortifications of Namur, but taken together the Belgian fortifications held the German advance for several days longer than the Germans had anticipated, allowing Belgium and France to mobilize, and preventing the Germans from falling on an unprepared Paris.
During the siege of Namur the Germans employed the lessons learned from their assault on the similar fortress ring of Liège. Unlike at Liège, where a quick German assault gave way to siege tactics, at Namur the Germans immediately deployed siege artillery on 21 August 1914. The guns included Austrian 304 mm mortars and 420 mm Big Bertha howitzers, firing from beyond the range of the forts' guns. The contest was unequal, and the forts suffered the same problems that plagued the Liège forts. Namur was evacuated by field forces on 23 August, the forts surrendering immediately afterwards.
Namur (, ; Namen ; Nameur) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium. It is both the capital of the province of Namur and of Wallonia, hosting the Parliament of Wallonia, Walloon Government and administration.
Namur came to prominence during the early Middle Ages when the Merovingians built a castle or citadel on the rocky spur overlooking the town at the confluence of the two rivers. In the 10th century, it became a county in its own right. The town developed somewhat unevenly, as the counts of Namur could only build on the north bank of the Meuse - the south bank was owned by the bishops of Liège and developed more slowly into the town of Jambes (now effectively a suburb of Namur). In 1262, Namur fell into the hands of the Count of Flanders, and was purchased by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1421.
The province of Namur is, along with that of Luxembourg, the province with the least prestigious football history in Belgium. Currently, no clubs from the province of Namur are playing in the top two levels of Belgian football. Furthermore, no club from this province has ever played in the top flight.
*Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Count of Namur 1477-1482, forced to cede Namur to Joanna of Castile.
Namur possesses a distinguished university, the University of Namur (previously known as the Facultés universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, FUNDP), founded in 1831. The University of Louvain (UCLouvain) also has several facilities in the city through its UCLouvain Namur University Hospital (CHU UCLouvain Namur), the provinces' largest employer.
NAMUR was established on 3 November 1949 in Leverkusen. The founding fathers were renowned experts in the chemical industry working for Bayer, BASF, Hüls and others. Established as the Association for Standardization of Measurement and Control Engineering in the Chemical Industry, the original full name of the association was the Normenarbeitsgemeinschaft für Mess- und Regeltechnik in der chemischen Industrie, hence the acronym NAMUR. However, the original full name is no longer used today.
The annual Namur cyclo-cross race, part of the UCI Cyclo-cross World Cup, takes place on the hills around the citadel.