On 11 July 1983 the Penzance sleeper was relaunched as the Night Riviera, designed to complement the long-established daytime Cornish Riviera. New Mark 3 air-conditioned sleeping cars were introduced with many safety features that had been lacking in the Mark 1 carriages that had caught fire at Taunton. These were the first on the route with controlled emission toilets, so discharge facilities were provided at Plymouth Laira and Penzance Long Rock depots where the carriages were serviced, although for a while the carriages were taken from Paddington to Willesden Depot for discharging as Old Oak Common was not initially equipped. A new pricing scheme was also introduced. Instead of paying a sleeping berth supplement on top of the fare for the journey, all-inclusive fares were introduced that were set at competitive rates. The seating carriages that formed part of the train were mainly Mark 2 carriages. The train by now was again leaving London at midnight, shown in the timetables as 23:59.
On 23 November 1983, the Night Riviera derailed on approach to London Paddington with locomotive 50041 sliding for 100 metres on its side. There were no casualties.
Although it proved a success, Night Network was never broadcast nationally – companies such as Central opted out of the entire programme from the start to provide its own schedule. With more programmes (be it imports, repeats or original output) competing for the overnight slots, the Sunday edition was eventually dropped in Autumn 1988. Around the same time, the first hour of Night Network became a regional For London Only segment on LWT while the remaining two hours continued to air across other regions, albeit in differing timeslots depending on the stations' preferred schedules.
Night Network was ITV's first major experiment into the area of overnight broadcasting beginning on Friday 28 August 1987, originally for the ITV regions covered by LWT, TVS and Anglia, before expanding to other regions during the summer of 1988. Whereas overnight broadcasts are commonplace today, back in the late 1980s, ITV decided it would take a more cautious approach with Night Network only initially broadcasting between 1am and 4am in the Friday and Saturday night schedules, and between 1am and 3am in the Sunday night schedule.
By 1997 Night was selling 300,000 copies a year in the United States. By 2011 it had sold six million copies in that country, and was available in 30 languages. Sales increased in January 2006 when it was chosen for Oprah's Book Club. Republished with a new translation by Marion Wiesel, Wiesel's wife, and a new preface by Wiesel, it sat at no. 1 in The New York Times bestseller list for paperback non-fiction for 18 months from 13 February 2006, until the newspaper decided to remove it. It became the club's third bestseller to date, with over two million sales of the Book Club edition by May 2011.
Night Network was broadcast for the last time on Friday 31 March 1989.
Due to her mother being raped by a vampire and getting pregnant, Catherine "Cat" Crawfield has spent her entire life being different from other humans. Her half-vampire nature allows her to pursue the full blooded vampires and lead them to their death, an activity that her mother fully endorses. Cat goes out almost every night in the hopes of finding and slaying her father, only to be captured by the vampiric bounty hunter Bones. After some initial reluctance on Cat's part, the two of them form a partnership to find and capture her father and eventually fall in love with one another. Their relationship is temporarily broken when Cat is forced to join with a secretive government agency devoted to hunting supernatural creatures, run by a man later revealed to be her uncle. Cat and Bones eventually reconcile, with Bones joining the agency to be near Cat. This reconciliation is later tested when Bones's precognitive grandsire Mencheres's wife Patra uses grave magic to try to kill Bones and Cat, forcing Cat and her friends to band together to kill her. Other plot points in the series involve Cat discovering that in the past Mencheres had wiped the memory of a controlling vampire she used to love from her mind in order to ensure that she would meet and fall in love with Bones and that she would fulfill her destiny as a powerful vampire. Cat does eventually become a vampire in order to ensure that she would be with Bones forever as well as to assuage growing fears in the ghoul population that she was not intending to become a ghoul-vampire hybrid with unprecedented powers. This backfires as she becomes not a regular vampire, but one that has an occasional heartbeat and can only drink the blood of other vampires, absorbing some of their powers in the process.
The show was produced for Night Network Productions and LWT by Jill Sinclair who had been the producer of BBC1's Pop Quiz and Channel 4's The Tube at Tyne Tees Television, aiming for a similar audience to that of these two shows. The format of Night Network was similar to Channel 4's Network 7, or even a late night adult version of Saturday morning kids TV, as it was a mixture of quizzes, celebrity guests, imported serials and bands.
Twenty-one night bus services, operated by Dysons, McKenzie's Tourist Services and Ventura Bus Lines, run as part of Night Network. Ten routes operate from the CBD, departing every 30 minutes, with the remaining 11 operating from metropolitan railway stations, departing every hour. Night Bus replaced NightRider bus services, which largely follow railway lines, with PTV claiming most passengers will still have access to all night public transport.
All of Melbourne's train services operated by Metro Trains Melbourne, except the Flemington Racecourse and Stony Point lines, operate as part of Night Network, servicing all metropolitan stations except for City Loop stations and Southern Cross, which close at midnight and 1am respectively. Trains operate hourly on all lines, with some lines operating as shuttles from major interchange stations.
Routes 19, 67, 75, 86, 96 and 109 operates overnight to half-hour frequencies. The Free Tram Zone remains in operation during Night Network operating times.
V/Line operate Night Coach services to Ballarat, Bendigo, Traralgon, and Geelong, departing Southern Cross station at approximately 2am. The coaches operate in lieu of regional trains, servicing railway stations along said routes. In October 2016, Seymour was added to the network.
The most obvious effect of darkness is reduced visibility. This affects a soldier's ability to observe friendly troop movements, understand terrain, and especially affects perception of enemy movements and position. Officers find that darkness hampers many aspects of command, including their ability to preserve control, execute movement, firing, maintenance of direction, reconnaissance, security, and mutual support. A U.S. Army report on historic Japanese warfare described an instance of this confusion: An example is recorded in the history of Japan when about 1180 a force[sic] of the Heike confronting a force of the Genji across the Fuji river (Shizuoka Prefecture) beat a hasty retreat one night due to mistaking the noise made by water fowl for an attacking Genji force. Indeed, a side effect of the reduced visibility is heightened audibility, as soldiers focus more on what they can hear. There are many instances of soldiers losing their bearings at night due to flashes from guns or enemy searchlights. The difficulties of perception lend themselves to fear of the unknown. Soldiers under fire can't tell where the fire originates and can't devise appropriate countermeasures. Such uncertainty is associated with feelings of loneliness and helplessness, and creates a tendency to over estimate enemy strength or be excessively pessimistic of the combat situation.
In 1895, Geoffrey Winthrop Young pioneered the sport of night climbing in Cambridge, England. The identification of the first Cambridge night climber remains an open question, but Young is generally regarded as the original pioneer.
The retinal must diffuse from the vision cell, out of the eye, and circulate via the blood to the liver where it is regenerated. In bright light conditions, most of the retinal is not in the photoreceptors, but is outside of the eye. It takes about 45 minutes of dark for all of the photoreceptor proteins to be recharged with active retinal, but most of the night vision adaptation occurs within the first five minutes in the dark. Adaptation results in maximum sensitivity to light. In dark conditions only the rod cells have enough sensitivity to respond and to trigger vision.
The civil polar night period produces only a faint glow of light visible at midday. It happens when there is no civil twilight and only nautical twilight occurs at the solar culmination. Civil twilight happens when the Sun is between 0 and 6° below the horizon, and civil night when it is lower than that. Therefore, the civil polar night is limited to latitudes above 72° 34', which is exactly 6° inside the polar circle. Nowhere on mainland Europe is this definition met. On the Norwegian territory of Svalbard, however, civil polar night lasts from about 11 November until 30 January. Dikson, in Russia, experiences civil polar night from December 6 to January 6. During dense cloud cover places like the coast of Finnmark (about 70°) in Norway will get a darker "day". On the Canadian territory of Pond Inlet, Nunavut however civil polar night lasts from about 16 December until 26 December.
During the nautical polar night period, there is no trace of daylight, except around midday. It happens when there is no nautical twilight and only astronomical twilight occurs at the solar culmination. Nautical twilight happens when the Sun is between six and twelve degrees below the horizon. There is a location at the horizon around midday with more light than others because of refraction. During nautical night, the Sun is lower than 12° below the horizon, so nautical polar night is limited to latitudes above 78° 34', which is exactly 12° within the polar circle, or 11.5° from the pole. Alert, Nunavut, the northernmost settlement in Canada and the world, experiences this from November 19 to January 22.
The astronomical polar night is a period of continuous night where no astronomical twilight occurs. Astronomical twilight happens when the Sun is between twelve and eighteen degrees below the horizon and astronomical night when it is lower than that. Thus, the astronomical polar night is limited to latitudes above 84° 34', which is exactly 18° within the polar circle, or five and a half degrees from the pole. During the astronomical polar night stars of the sixth magnitude, which are the dimmest stars visible to the naked eye, will be visible throughout the entire day. This happens when the sun is between 18° and 23°27’ degrees below the horizon. These conditions last about 11 weeks at the poles.
Using red light for night vision is less effective for people with red–green color blindness, due to their insensitivity to red light.
Nocturnal mammals have rods with unique properties that make enhanced night vision possible. The nuclear pattern of their rods changes shortly after birth to become inverted. In contrast to conventional rods, inverted rods have heterochromatin in the center of their nuclei and euchromatin and other transcription factors along the border. In addition, the outer layer of cells in the retina (the outer nuclear layer) in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the millions of rods present to process the lower light intensities. The anatomy of this layer in nocturnal mammals is such that the rod nuclei, from individual cells, are physically stacked such that light will pass through eight to ten nuclei before reaching the photoreceptor portion of the cells. Rather than being scattered, the light is passed to each nucleus individually, by a strong lensing effect due to the nuclear inversion, passing out of the stack of nuclei, and into the stack of ten photorecepting outer segments. The net effect of this anatomical change is to multiply the light sensitivity of the retina by a factor of eight to ten with no loss of focus.