Partnerships present the involved parties with complex negotiation and special challenges that must be navigated unto agreement. Overarching goals, levels of give-and-take, areas of responsibility, lines of authority and succession, how success is evaluated and distributed, and often a variety of other factors must all be negotiated. Once agreement is reached, the partnership is typically enforceable by civil law, especially if well documented. Partners who wish to make their agreement affirmatively explicit and enforceable typically draw up Articles of Partnership. Trust and pragmatism are also essential as it cannot be expected that everything can be written in the initial partnership agreement, therefore quality governance and clear communication are critical success factors in the long run. It is common for information about formally partnered entities to be made public, such as through a press release, a newspaper ad, or public records laws.
Limited Partnerships are governed by Part III of the Act. The paramount characteristic of such a partnership is that a limited partner's liability will be limited: See s.49(1) definition.
The term partnership enterprise refers to general partnerships and limited partnerships which may be established within China by natural persons, legal persons and other organizations. A state-funded company, state-owned company, listed company, public welfare-oriented public institution or social organization may not become a general partner of a limited partnership.
A limited partnership (有限合伙) is formed by a combination of general partners and limited partners where the limited partners bear the liabilities for the partnership's debts to the extent of their capital contributions.
In March 2010, under the banner of "social dialogue", the ICTU public service unions and the Government negotiated a three-year pay-freeze and the potential claw-back of some of the imposed pay-cuts in return for verified efficiencies and increased flexible working rosters and mobility of up to 45 km between workplaces. It also included an accord on reviewing any decisions to outsource some aspects of public services to ensure value-for-money. Unlike earlier "social partnership" procedures the main private sector employer bodies were not involved and the negotiations were facilitated by the state Labour Relations Commission (LRC).
Following 23 years of social partnership the Irish trades unions (ICTU) entered the new decade seriously weakened and with union employee density down to 31% compared to a density highpoint of 62% in the early 1980s preceding the series of seven corporatist social pacts. Union penetration is highly imbalanced with a density approaching 80% in the public sector and around 20% in the larger private sector. Union members are now more likely to be over 45, married with children, Irish-born with third-level qualifications and working in semi-professional occupations, especially in the health, education or public administration sectors, rather than the traditional image of being lower-paid vulnerable, low-skill workers.
A general partnership (普通合伙) may be formed by general partners who bear unlimited joint and several liability for the debts of the partnership. the general partners share unlimited liabilities for the debt of the partnership.
A limited partnership in the United Kingdom consists of:
In a limited partnership the general partners are liable for all debts and obligations of the firm while the limited partners are liable only for the capital they contributed to the firm.
Unless a partnership agreement between the partners demand otherwise, (1) a majority of the general partners decide ordinary business matters, (2) a limited partner may assign his partnership interest, (3) a limited partner cannot dissolve a partnership, (4) the introduction of a new partner does not require the consent of the existing limited partners.
In a limited partnership the general partners manage the firm while the limited partners may not. And should limited partners do so, then they become personally liable for the debts of obligations of the firm in the same manner as a general partner.
In a general partnership all partners are general partners so each one is liable for all debts and obligations of the firm.
The concept of batting in partnership becomes even more vital once only one recognised quality batsman remains. His job is then to shepherd the tail-end batsmen, while attempting to eke out as many runs as possible, or simply to survive as long as possible when merely attempting to save the game. This usually involves attempting to minimise risk, by exposing the lesser batsmen to as little bowling as possible. To do this, boundaries and twos are preferred while singles are avoided in the early parts of an over (although this allows the fielding captain to set his field further back into a more defensive position, often tempting the batsman with an easy single) but because the bowling end changes at the end of an over, it is necessary to score a single (or much more rarely, three runs) to counteract this. While a single on the sixth and final ball of the over would be ideal, the field is usually set closer to make this harder and the batsman may prefer to rotate the strike on the fifth or even fourth ball, hoping that the tail-ender can survive for a delivery or two, rather than risking either having to take a dangerous run on the last ball (with the attendant risk of a run out) or not being able to get a single at all, leaving the tail-ender stranded on strike for the start of the next over (hence allowing up to six balls to be bowled at him)
Batting in partnership is an important skill. When two higher-order batsmen (usually these are the side's best batsmen) are together, they are largely free to play to their own styles (which may be quite different: Marcus Trescothick, an aggressive strokeplayer and Mike Atherton, a defensive stonewaller, enjoyed many successful opening partnerships for England) although "rotating the strike" (each allowing the other play to face the bowler regularly) is encouraged, and communication when calling runs is an important part of any partnership. Opening partnerships are entrusted with seeing off the new ball, later partnerships are largely charged with consolidation, often facing an aging ball, spin bowling and eventually the second new ball.
A special general partnership (特殊普通合伙) resembles a general partnership except that it must be a professional service institution offering services requiring professional knowledge and special skills. The structure shields co-partners from liabilities due to the willful misconduct or gross negligence of one partner or a group of partners. It is intended as the preferred form of organization for law and accounting firms.
We are an energetic coalition of civil society actors who believe in sustainable development through dignified partnership. We asked around 200 Scottish and 200 Malawian organisations to identify the principles which underpin such a partnership and were excited to find a great convergence of opinion. This has been enshrined in our eleven Partnership Principles: we, and all our members, hold ourselves accountable to these published principles.
The six charities making up the partnership delivering advice and other services to asylum seekers in each region of Britain funded by the Home Office, Welsh Government, and Scottish Government are:
Orthodox leaders who express public support for partnership minyan and expanded roles for women are often delegitimized by representatives of the rabbinic establishment claiming to speak on behalf of "mainstream" or "majority" of Orthodox Jews. In some cases, rabbis supporting partnership minyan have been publicly humiliated and privately reprimanded, threatened with losing their status within rabbinic organizations or in one case even losing his title as rabbi. Below is a sampling of the rabbinic arguments against partnership minyan.
Liquidation of a partnership generally means that the assets are sold, liabilities are paid, and the remaining cash or other assets are distributed to the partners.
The existence of partnership minyanim was preceded by an opinion by Modern Orthodox Rabbi Mendel Shapiro in 2001, subsequently joined by Bar-Ilan University Talmud Professor Rabbi Daniel Sperber, claiming that halakha (Jewish law) permits Orthodox women to be called to, and to read from, the Torah on Shabbat under certain conditions. These opinions rely on earlier authorities including the Magen Avraham. Dr. Joel B. Wolowelsky also expressed an opinion which, while not offering a formal opinion on the halachic issues, suggested that the partnership minyan enterprise was not necessarily inconsistent with an Orthodox hashkafah (outlook).