According to that statement, the Basic Principles for the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are based on the Helsinki Final Act (1975) principles of Non-Use of Force, Territorial Integrity, and the Equal Rights and Self-Determination of Peoples.
Management accountants can rely on causality and analogy as foundational principles as they are grounded in decision science – the laws of logic. :* Causality principle — the relation between a managerial objective's quantitative output and the input quantities that must be, or must have been, consumed if the output is to be achieved. Principle of Causality enables modeling the organization's costs based on the relationship between the inputs and outputs of the resources involved in the production of products and services it provides. Often this is straightforward when dealing with strong causal relationships (i.e. raw materials to make product A). However, where weaker causal relationships exist, costs need to be attributed according to the concept of attributability, which maintains the integrity of causality. :* Analogy principle — the use of causal insights to infer past or future outcomes. Principle of Analogy governs the user of management accounting information's ability to apply the knowledge or insights gained from the causal relationships modeled (e.g., in planning, control, what-if analysis) using inductive and deductive reasoning about past and future outcomes for continuous optimization efforts.
Principle 4: Environmental and Social Management System and Equator Principles Action Plan
The core principles are defining characteristics, the necessary conditions for humanitarian response. Organizations such as military forces and for-profit companies may deliver assistance to communities affected by disaster in order to save lives and alleviate suffering, but they are not considered by the humanitarian sector as humanitarian agencies as their response is not based on the core principles.
There was acceptance, but also a lack of great enthusiasm, by both the Government of the Republic of Ireland, and by moderate nationalists in Northern Ireland, amongst them the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), as the principles chimed with developing European labour law provisions. In 1987 the then Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Brian Lenihan was quoted as follows regarding the McBride Principles: “The Government's policy is to press for action by the British Government on measures in the short and medium term aimed at promoting equality of opportunity…”. He later wrote in 1989 “The Government's view is that there is nothing objectionable in the MacBride principles”.
In addition to the above, each signatory to the principles is required to report annually to an independent monitoring agency on its progress in the implementation of these principles.
Some of the principles were seen as unrealistic and impracticable, such as protection of employees on their way to and from work. Besides, they were perceived as throttling foreign investment in Northern Ireland and by that increasing the economic problems of the province. No cases were mentioned where a specific American investment had led to discrimination.
The principles read:
Each of these Guiding Principles has multiple criteria, ranging from reducing building energy use to meeting the EPA's recycled content recommendations.
In addition to the core principles, there are other principles that govern humanitarian response for specific types of humanitarian agencies such as UN agencies, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and NGOs.
The original Barcelona Principles were predominantly focused on “what not to do” and were created with the public relations industry in mind. Its quantitative methods outweighed qualitative methods and due to a constantly changing industry, standards needed to continuously evolve in order to accurately measure effectiveness.
The new principles read:
The 10 principles that summarize the public value of marriage and why society should endorse and support the institution:
Having taken account of the existing notions of affirmative action, positive action, special measures and positive measures in various legal frameworks, the Declaration further formulates principles on which to base the law on positive action and positive duties. Positive action does not constitute discrimination as long as the difference in treatment is aimed at achieving full and effective equality and the means adopted are proportionate to that aim. Positive ac¬tion measures are not defined as an exception to the principle of equal treatment but as part of its implementation. States have a positive duty to promote equality.
The modified principles were based on results accumulated from a wide array of communication agencies, organizations, and practitioners over the past five years of applied standards. Modifications included learnings that can be applied with a focus on, “what to do” instead of, “what not to do”. The Barcelona Principles 2.0 integrated all communication field measurement that now reflect the importance of evaluation, insight, and qualitative methods.
The Sullivan principles, introduced in 1977 with one addition in 1984, consisted of seven requirements a corporation was to demand for its employees as a condition for doing business. In general, the principles demanded the equal treatment of employees regardless of their race both within and outside of the workplace, demands which directly conflicted with the official South African policies of racial segregation and unequal rights.
The Declaration further contains principles on equality related to: the relationship between discrimination and violence; the scope of application of the right to equality (“all areas of activity regulated by law”); the personal scope: who are the right-holders, e.g. whether legal persons can claim the right as well as individuals and groups; the definition of duty-bearers; the content of the duty to give effect to the right to equality; the obligations regarding multiple discrimination; the duty of accommodating difference (defining the concept of reasonable accommodation); the relationship between the right to equality and poverty; the specificity of equality legislation; the duty to ensure participation in developing law and policies implementing the right to equality; and the duty to provide education related to equality.
Marking a transition from identity politics to a unitary human rights framework on equality, the Declaration provides guidance on some of the most complex and controversial issues that arise in any attempt to develop comprehensive equality legislation at the national level. For example, it defines the right to equality, equal treatment, and the right to non-discrimination, and gives a legal definition of discrimination, as well as of the most important types of discrimination (direct, indirect, harassment, discrimination by association and by perception); through these, it provides guidance on the question of how the right to non-discrimination relates to the right to equality. The Declaration also provides general principles on how to approach the question of the grounds on which discrimination must be prohibited: should the right to non-discrimination apply only to a closed list of grounds? Are new grounds emerging that should require equal pro-tection? Is there a hierarchy of the ground of discrimination, and what should be the approach to defining exceptions?
In 2015 industry leaders and the original developers gathered together to modify the original principles in order to make them more reflective of the current communication industry, as the original Barcelona Principles were "never intended to be a final or complete solution.” The goal of the working group was to ensure that the Barcelona Principles could continue to act as a baseline for professionals.
Another set of principles are related to enforcement of the right to equality and define access to justice in equality law; victimisation; standing rules; evidence and proof in adjudicating equality rights; remedies and sanctions; the role of specialised bodies; and the duty to gather and disseminate information including statistics as part of the enforcement of the right to equality. Finally, the Declaration contains principles prohibiting regressive interpretation and derogations from the right to equality.