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Remedial education - Online remedial education

Online remedial education is defined as an instruction method using Information and communication technologies (ICT) which helps students to provide knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in university. This way, foreign students can study in their home country, which reduces their costs while at the same time offering flexibility to develop their knowledge and skills. ICT has the power to support independent learning as well as to learn irrespective of time and geographical constraints with the widespread implementation of internet.

Remedial education - Course delivery

In 2011, a nonprofit did a review of studies on remedial education delivery and found that, "programs that show the greatest benefits with relatively rigorous documentation either mainstream developmental students into college-level courses with additional supports, provide modularized or compressed courses to allow remedial students to more quickly complete their developmental work, or offer contextualized remedial education within occupational and vocational programs."

Remedial education - Research on outcomes

Complete College America, a national non-profit working on remedial education reform, reports that among remedial students at two-year colleges 62% complete their remedial course and 23% complete associated college-level courses in that subject within 2 year (for example, complete math remediation and the college-level math requirements for their degree). On 4-year college campuses, 74% of students in remedial courses complete the course, and 37% complete remediation and an associated college-level course in that subject within 2 years. The same report projects that 9.5% of two-year college students starting in remediation will graduate within 3 years, and 35.1% of 4-year college students starting in remedial courses will graduate within 6 years.

Remedial education - Effectiveness

The question that rises is whether successful completion of a remedial course guarantees students' success in college. The literature provides limited evidence for the effectiveness of remedial courses on outcomes such as: persistence to graduation, quality of performance in subsequent courses, drop-out, and grade point average. Many researchers claim that very little research has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of remedial or developmental education and that research concerning the effectiveness of remedial education programs has been sporadic, underfunded, and inconclusive and has serious methodological flaws. Recently, efforts have been made to use more rigorous research designs (e.g. regression discontinuity design) to evaluate remedial effectiveness and suggest that post-remediation classroom composition (e.g., concentrated underpreparedness) moderates developmental education effectiveness efforts.

Remedial education - National efforts

Over the last several years, a large amount of philanthropic and research attention has been directed at remedial education programs. Often, focus on remedial education is directed at 1) increasing the successful completion of remedial sequences 2) increasing the overall number of students with college degrees and certificates in the US and 3) decreasing the cost of remedial education to colleges and states.

Remedial action

A remedial action is a change made to a nonconforming product or service to address the deficiency. This also can refer to restoration of a landscape from industrial activity

Remedial education - Success factors

Other research suggests that "bridge" programs that integrate basic skills and remedial education with higher-level content or technical training can produce substantially better results than traditional remedial programs.

Remedial education - In Europe

While remedial programmes are common in the United States, they are less common in Europe. Nevertheless, several European higher education institutes have started to offer remedial education programmes as well. One of the reasons why European universities are starting to develop remedial courses is the different situation in the two continents. In the United States, a common assumption is that remediation attracts underprepared students of low socioeconomic status. Inadequate academic preparation is no longer a barrier to college access. In contrast, in Europe, a large part of the transitional problems are caused by differences among national secondary educational programmes, which are determined on a national level. Therefore, these students are hindered to effectively start a bachelor or master programme. Remedial or developmental courses can help to bridge the gap.

Remedial education - Student placement

Particularly at community colleges – which are open enrollment to any student with a high school degree or GED – multiple semesters of remedial coursework may be available to and required of students that enter with low placement test scores.

Remedial education - Student placement

Many students are placed into remedial courses through placement tests such as the ACT, SAT , ACCUPLACER , or COMPASS assessments. Often, each college or university sets its own score thresholds for determining whether a student must enroll in remedial courses. However, some states are moving toward a uniform standard for remedial placement cut scores. Students are required to enroll in remedial courses before advancing to a college level course in that subject. Colleges review a student's score by subject - math, English, science, etc. - and compare that score to the school's cutoff. For example, a college might use a score of 19 on the ACT math section as the threshold for determining whether a student must enroll in a remedial math course or college-level math course.

Remedial education - Taiwan and Mainland China

Remedial education, also known as "buxiban" (, lit. "remedial education classes") are cram schools in Taiwan and Mainland China.

Remedial education - In the United States

Postsecondary remediation is delivered on both 2-year community college and 4-year university campuses in the U.S. The bulk of remedial courses focus on advancing underprepared students' literacy skills (English and reading) or math skills. However, remedial courses can also be offered for other subjects such as science or study skills.

Remedial education - Course delivery

Online Courses: Some colleges have explored the use of providing remedial education courses online for students; however, evidence indicates that completion of online remedial courses is lower across almost every group of students compared to in-person remedial instruction. There is also evidence that students enrolling in online remedial education are less likely than their in-person counterparts to continue on to college-level coursework in the same subject.

Remedial action

Remedial Action is often enacted through ‘Remedial Action Plans’ (RAPs) of three or more stages. For example, one North American river protection scheme drew up a plan that identified environmental problems and sources of pollution, evaluated and carried out actions to restore the area, and confirmed that these actions had been effective

Remedial action - Varieties

Environmental - If the environment a business works in becomes polluted as the result of the activities of that business, or sometimes other events, this pollution must be cleaned for reasons of safety and welfare. This will normally involve the business either financing the remedial action or applying for the finances to do so. If the business is not at fault, the government may finance the remediation.

Remedial education - Achieving the Dream

Originally an initiative led by the Lumina Foundation, Achieving the Dream focuses on increasing the success of college students – particularly students of color and students from low-income backgrounds. Starting in 2004 the project funded promising, data driven approaches to strengthening remedial education coursework. Today, Achieving the Dream is its own, national organization with the same driving mission: "Achieving the Dream is a national reform network dedicated to community college student success and completion; focused primarily on helping low-income students and students of color complete their education and obtain market-valued credentials." The organization continues to fund positive interventions that move underprepared students through remediation with greater success and features a list of best practices and exemplary colleges from which other higher education administrators can learn. Achieving the Dream promotes many different promising interventions that can increase the success of students including: first-year student success courses that provide students with the skills to navigate college expectations/academics more effectively, accelerated remedial courses in math and English, student mentoring and coaching, mandatory orientations for new students and supplementary computer tutoring for remedial students. Achieving the Dream also takes an active role in state policy advocacy and is currently working in 15 states to strengthen student remedial success.

Remedial education - Student enrollment

The state of Colorado issued a 2012 report on remedial placement showing that 40% of recent high school students enrolled in remedial courses at both two-year and 4- year colleges. Sixty-six (66%)of students enrolled in a two-year college and 24% of students at a four-year institution needed remediation.

Remedial education - Changes in North Carolina

In 2012, North Carolina underwent a wide scale redesign of their remedial education programs. Branded as 'Success NC', the program's Developmental Education Initiative takes steps to redesign math and reading curricula, move students through remedial courses faster and better assess and place students. NC colleges can now incorporate high school grades into their course placement decisions. Additionally, starting in 2014, all colleges will deliver remedial reading & English in 3 shorter, 8 week modules for some students while allowing higher level remedial students to enroll in college-level English courses with required supplementary English instruction.

Remedial action

Rework and repair are generally the remedial actions taken on products, while services usually require additional services to be performed to ensure satisfaction.

Remedial education - Core Principles Statement

Strategies that accelerate students through remedial coursework and on to college-level (also called gatekeeper) courses are widely promoted as one path to increasing the success of under-prepared students.