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Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis - Extensively drug-resistant TB

In the past 10 years TB strains have emerged in Italy, Iran, India, and South Africa which are resistant to all available first and second line TB drugs, classified as totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, though there is some controversy over this term. Increasing levels of resistance in TB strains threaten to complicate the current global public health approaches to TB control. New drugs are being developed to treat extensively resistant forms but major improvements in detection, diagnosis, and treatment will be needed.

Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis - Extensively drug-resistant TB

MDR-TB can become resistant to the major second-line TB drug groups: fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, ofloxacin) and injectable aminoglycoside or polypeptide drugs (amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin). When MDR-TB is resistant to at least one drug from each group, it is classified as extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).

Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis - Extensively drug-resistant TB

In a study of MDR-TB patients from 2005 to 2008 in various countries, 43.7% had resistance to at least one second-line drug. About 9% of MDR-TB cases are resistant to a drug from both classes and classified as XDR-TB.

Water Resistant mark - ISO 2281 water-resistant watches standard

The International Organization for Standardization issued a standard for water-resistant watches which also prohibits the term waterproof to be used with watches, which many countries have adopted. This standard was introduced in 1990 as the ISO 2281:1990 and only designed for watches intended for ordinary daily use and are resistant to water during exercises such as swimming for a short period. They may be used under conditions where water pressure and temperature vary; German Industrial Norm DIN 8310 is an equivalent standard. However, whether they bear an additional indication of overpressure or not, they are not intended for submarine diving.

Resistant starch - In food

Starch has been consumed by people and animals for thousands of years. Thus, foods containing resistant starch are already commonly consumed.

Resistant starch - Isolated

Resistant starch has a small particle size, white appearance, bland flavor and low water-holding capacity. Resistant starch typically replaces flour in foods such as bread and other baked goods, pasta, cereal and batters because it can produce foods with similar color and texture of the original food. It has also been used for its textural properties in imitation cheese.

Resistant starch - Origin and history

The concept of resistant starch arose from research in the 1970s and is currently considered to be one of three starch types: rapidly digested starch, slowly digested starch and resistant starch, each of which may affect levels of blood glucose.

Resistant starch - Origin and history

The European Commission supported research eventually leading to a definition of resistant starch.

Resistant reading - Textual example

A resistant reading may develop from an alternative reading, pointing out how the representation of gender in the poem furthers the notion of gender as binary oppositions, the male is active and powerful, the female is passive and marginalized. As such, it will be read by readers who share feminist views of the world as gender inequality and discrimination against women. For example, Marvell's representation of heterosexuality in the poem may be read as being exploitative, based as it is on the persona psychologically terrorizing the woman. Marvell depicts his persona as attempting to have the woman submit as a result of the fear he seeks to instill within her; Marvell's vivid and confronting imagery is most significant and not accidental:

Resistant starch - Health effects

There is weak evidence that resistant starch can improve fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and sensitivity, especially in individuals who are diabetic, overweight or obese. In 2016, the U.S. FDA approved a qualified health claim stating that resistant starch might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but with qualifying language for product labels that limited scientific evidence exists to support this claim. Because qualified health claims are issued when the science evidence is weak or not consistent, the FDA requires specific labeling language, such as the guideline concerning resistant starch: "High-amylose maize resistant starch may reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes. FDA has concluded that there is limited scientific evidence for this claim."

Resistant starch - In food

It has been estimated that average resistant starch intake in developed countries ranges from 3–6 grams/day for Northern Europeans, Australians and Americans, 8.5 grams/day for Italians and 10–15 grams/day in Indian and Chinese diets. The higher consumption of starch-containing foods like pasta and rice likely accounts for higher intake of resistant starch in Italy, India and China.

Resistant starch - Health effects

Modest amounts of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen are also produced in intestinal fermentation. One review estimated that the acceptable daily intake of resistant starch may be as high as 45 grams in adults, an amount exceeding the total recommended intake for dietary fiber of 25–38 grams per day. When isolated resistant starch is used to substitute for flour in foods, the glycemic response of that food is reduced.

Resistant reading - Importance

Resistant reading is an important element of our critical and interpretive repertoire. It is worth considering whether diegetic border crossing always strengthens the potential for resistant reading (as might seem intuitively likely, given that readers are moving in and out of the story), or whether on some occasions it might trigger the reverse effect.

Resistant starch - In food

Several studies have found that the traditional African diet is high in resistant starch. Rural black South Africans consume an average of 38 grams of resistant starch per day by having cooked and cooled corn porridge and beans in their diets.

Resistant starch - Nutritional information

Resistant starch is considered both a dietary fiber and a functional fiber, depending on whether it is naturally in foods or added. Although the U.S. Institute of Medicine has defined total fiber as equal to functional fiber plus dietary fiber, U.S. food labeling does not distinguish between them.

Resistant cancer

Resistant cancer or refractory cancer is the cancer that doesn't respond to medical treatment. It may be resistant at the beginning of treatment, or it may become resistant during treatment.

Resistant starch

Some types of resistant starch (RS1, RS2 and RS3) are fermented by the large intestinal microbiota, conferring benefits to human health through the production of short-chain fatty acids, increased bacterial mass, and promotion of butyrate-producing bacteria.

Resistant starch

Resistant starch (RS) is starch, including its degradation products, that escapes from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of dried raw foods, and isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.

Resistant starch - Health effects

The fermentation of resistant starch produces short-chain fatty acids, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate and increased bacterial cell mass. The short-chain fatty acids are produced in the large intestine where they are rapidly absorbed from the colon, then are metabolized in colonic epithelial cells, liver or other tissues. The fermentation of resistant starch produces more butyrate than other types of dietary fibers.

Resistant starch - Definition and categorization

Resistant starch (RS) is any starch or starch digestion products that are not digested and absorbed in the stomach or small intestine and pass on to the large intestine. RS has been categorized into four types:

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