SAWS may refer to:
The determined escaper often needed a means of cutting through the iron window-bars of a prison. Hutton mentions "a tiny saw" among the contents of the RAF Ration Box Mk.II, but this must indeed have been very small to fit into the cigarette tin alongside other objects. Foot & Langley say that MI9 produced "several formidable hacksaws." One was a blade 4 1/2 in. long x 1/2 in. wide, having a hole in one end through which string could be tied when it was concealed in clothing – evidently, then, a tool for escapers rather than evaders. The escape knife, which they credit to Hutton – although the latter does not himself mention it – was a robust multi-function tool that included a sawblade. It must have been a prized item in prison camps, provided it escaped detection by X-rays during the guards' inspection. Hiding saws in items such as the seams of clothes or in bootlaces was a difficulty because of the brittleness and stiffness of the steel. Thinking about this problem, Hutton came up with the idea of the Gigli saw. By talking to a friend whose father was a surgeon, he discovered that these could be purchased ready-made and would fit inside a bootlace without adaptation. The surgical saw was chain-like, and had loops at each end to take handles. He bought some samples from a medical instrument supplier, but finding them ideal, he wanted very large quantities. In his usual manner, he set about obtaining enough serrated wire for 10,000 saws from a factory in Birmingham and they were soon put to use.
Later, Wagner and Framag build similar saws with a vertical design.
Cordwood saws, also called buzz saws in some locales, use blade of a similar size to sawmills. Where a sawmill rips (cuts with the grain) a cordwood saw crosscuts (cuts across the grain). Cordwood saws can have a blade from 20 in to more than 36 in diameter depending on the power source and intended purpose. Cordwood saws are used to cut logs and slabs (sawmill waste) into firewood. The Cord (unit) is the standard measurement of standing timber (by estimation) or rough logs. "Cordwood" means unsplit logs four feet long. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, farmers would supply householders in town with cordwood, which would then be re-sawn and split to a length and circumference suitable for woodburning heaters and ranges. Almost all these devices were designed to accept 16-inch sticks, conveniently a piece of cordwood cut into three equal lengths. Once a piece of cordwood had been re-sawn to three 16-inch pieces, it could easily be split to stovewood size with an ax.
In 1974, Metalcut developed two layer saws which cut the ends of up to six "C" profiles. The profiles approached the saws horizontally, in layers. The first saw cut the front ends, the second the rear ones, whereby the latter was movable on tracks and which therefore cut different lengths. These machines were built as pivot saws and cut from the bottom up through the profiles.
In September 2005, the United States Forest Service conducted field trials of vintage saws against modern saws, details of which can be found in the external link reference provided below. One significant finding in the background research findings is that vintage saws are becoming increasingly difficult to locate owing to the demand for such saws by professionals.
Cordwood saws were once very popular in rural America. They were used to cut smaller wood into firewood in an era when hand powered saws were the only other option. Logs too large for a cordwood saw were still cut by hand. Chainsaws have largely replaced cordwood saws for firewood preparation today. Still, some commercial firewood processors and others use cordwood saws to save wear and tear on their chainsaws. Most people consider cordwood saws unsafe and outdated technology.
Most cordwood saws consist of a frame, blade, mandrel, cradle, and power source. The cradle is a tilting or sliding guide that holds logs during the cutting process. Certain cordwood saws are run from a belt from a farm tractor power takeoff pulley. Others, mounted on a tractor's three-point hitch, connect to the rear power takeoff shaft. Self-powered models are equipped with small gasoline engines or even large electric motors as power sources. The mandrel is a shaft and set of bearings that support and transfer power to the blade. The frame is a structure that supports the cradle and blade at a convenient working height.
The rotary motion of a circular saw lends itself to cutting hard materials like concrete, asphalt, metal, tile, brick, and stone with an abrasive saws like a tile saw. Diamond blades and cut off wheels are commonly used in these applications.
Some automatic saws rely on numerical control to not only cut faster, but to be more precise and perform more complex miter cuts.
Head saws are large bandsaws that make the initial cuts in a log. They generally have a 2 to 3 in tooth space on the cutting edge and sliver teeth on the back. Sliver teeth are non-cutting teeth designed to wipe slivers out of the way when the blade needs to back out of a cut.
Portable cold saws were primarily designed for sheet metal roofers in the building industry, and can cut up to 6 mm thick mild steel. Cold saws, as opposed to abrasive saws, are used so that protective coatings are not damaged. They have a heavy duty aluminium catcher which is useful for capture the swarf, and use cermet tipped blades.
There are two types of crosscut saw classification, vintage and modern. Vintage saws are saws that can be anywhere from 30 to as much as 250 years old and are much sought after by professionals, and as such are typically very much more expensive than modern crosscut saws. Modern saws are typically stamped out of sheet metal and are manufactured from contemporary alloys; they behave very differently from vintage saws, which have historically been made by craftsmen who understood the nuances of the saws they produced.
Pivot saws were originally used as HSS saws for cutting small profiles and tubes. In the later 1970s these saws began to be used for larger steel profiles on construction projects (Kaltenbach).
Rip cuts are commonly made with a table saw, but other types of power saws can also be used, including a radial arm saw, band saw, and hand held circular saw. In sawmills the head saw is the first rip-saw a log goes through, which is sometimes a gang-saw, and then the cants may be resawn using other saws and then edged in a edger and sometimes cut to length by a crosscut saw. Also, smaller portable sawmills and chainsaw mills use rip-cuts to produce lumber. Each time a piece of wood is rip cut it takes time and the kerf material turns into sawdust and loses value so the number and width of each rip cut influence the economics of the operation: This gives band saws an advantage over circular saws and chainsaws.
Overall, modern saws have some advantages over vintage saws such as stiffness which is useful for felling but might cause difficulties when bucking downed trunks which have bind. Vintage saws which bend easily and can, in fact, be folded end-to-end for carrying on one's back, afford easier transport than most modern saws, and afford less-binding cuts that aren't straight.
Concrete and masonry-cutting 'ring' saws are a form of disk cutter and are unrelated to bandsaws. They do however also use a diamond abrasive.
Double cut saws have cutting teeth on both sides. They are generally very large, similar in size to a head saw.
In 1973, Metalcut developed the first carbide rail saw which was later produced by other companies including Wagner. In 1997, AME developed an economical rail saw under the brand name AMSAW 300-R, which is still widely used throughout the U.S. In 1999, AME built a special model of a carbide saw for mitercutting railroad rails for frogs and switches. In 2011, AME develops a special model which is integrated as a double saw in a railroad car and used for repair work of railroad tracks in the USA. It replaced abrasive saws which had been used before. These abrasive saws were guilty of causing forest fires due the hot chips and sparks. Consequently, these hazardous machines were replaced with AMSAW cold saws.
Horizontal slide saws are probably the most commonly used type of carbide saw. With this design the saw blade is mounted on the gearbox spindle, where it slides on horizontal ways and enters horizontally into the billet.