The university sector leaders in supported employment in the 1980s included Parents for Positive Futures which were women and men (e.g., Kathy Hayduke), women CEOs of non-profit organizations (who also were parents of children with disabilities, Josephine Scro), women state and NGO management (e.g., Sheila Harrigan, first CEO of NYSACRA), and women university professionals and researchers (e.g., "controlled for gender, age, disability, household size, race and ethnicity"). In addition, it was not until decades later that the complexity of gender and its role in the workforce (See, women's professions, and disability and gender, post-Adrienne Asch) began to appear in the American literatures "with special population women management".
By 1985, supported employment based on community integration had diverse vocational models in the US, including the social relationship concept of "disabled and non-disabled co-workers" working side-by-side in integrated workplaces (Nisbet & Callahan, 1987). Both consumers (self-advocates) and parents supported the new movement (in intellectual and developmental disabilities), seeking better opportunities for jobs, and later careers. A leading text on "Critical Issues in the Lives of People with Severe Disabilities" (Meyer, Peck & Brown, 1991) highlighted Supported Employment as one of the emerging practices with research already available on benefit-costs, consumer wages, social integration, and ongoing support (Rusch, Chadsey-Rusch, & Johnson, 1991).
In the psychiatric field, the prominent approach, also very innovative in long term services and supports (LTSS) was transitional employment associated with the now international Clubhouse Model of Fountain House in New York City. Gary Bond (1994) reported supported work as a modification of this approach. Paul Carling (1995) of the University of Vermont supported the development of community employment options in the field of psychiatric disabilities; Paul Wehman conducted critical cross-disability studies near the Medical School; Dr. Steven Murphy (1991) adapted employment supports for the psychiatric field; Julie Ann Racino confirmed related affirmative business and family models (e.g., Racino, 2003), and Dr. William Anthony (Anthony et al., 2002) of Boston University and his research center continues to work since the 1980s on a "get-choose-keep" approach to employment.
Supported employment was developed in the United States in the 1970s as part of both vocational rehabilitation (VR) services (e.g., NYS Office of Vocational Services, 1978) and the advocacy for long term services and supports (LTSS) for individuals with significant disabilities in competitive job placements in integrated settings (e.g., businesses, offices, manufacturing facilities). Since the mid-1980s, supported employment in the professional literature primarily has referred to the "individual placement" model, either with job coaches or through "natural supports" models. The critical issue in supported employment (SE) was viewed as the need for funding for long-term services and supports (LTSS) in the community often termed beyond "case closure" (Griffin, Test, Dalton, & Wood, 1995). Supported employment is worldwide in 2013, though moving to new inclusive models, and the term has been used for assisting workers of diverse kinds who may need an extra jump start in the workplace; it is still associated with its roots in disability which includes community integration and deinstitutionalization
In part this discrepancy was due to what was termed the "male education of high women in America," such as this author's over 40 male professors and 2 women professors (one visiting from out-of-state, and another not obtaining tenure) for her Bachelor's degree at Cornell University in 1975 (e.g., Racino, 2014). Our Nordic lead began with gender perspectives on family caregiving and published "in house" (Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration) a supported employment bibliography from gender perspectives (Traustadottir, 1990-. p.s., the daughter of Trausta).
In addition, the major federal research center in "mental retardation/intellectual and developmental disabilities" in the US has been "male-led" as Director, Associate Director and Technical Assistance to US States) for over 3 decades (Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Supported Employment, and variations) (e.g., Wehman, 1993; Wehman & Kregel, 1994) However, women have held key roles in labor and disability, including Suzanne Bruyere of Cornell University ILR (Industrial and Labor Relations) School. Since supported employment is a subset of employment and now business entrepreneurships, analyses of its role and effects in the broader employment studies is still open for further research.
In the United States, supported employment is defined in the Rehabilitation Act, as amended (1978). The more recent Rehabilitation Act Amendments were contained in the Workforce Investment Act signed into law in 1998. The Rehabilitation Act and its amendments establish and fund the Vocational Rehabilitation program. Vocational Rehabilitation, which is frequently referred to as “V.R.”, is the core national employment program for persons with a disability, but is not the main agency to fund long-term services and supports (LTSS) in the community. Federal funding is funneled through state Vocational Rehabilitation agencies, and categorical state agencies and their regional offices (e.g., New York Office of People with Developmental Disabilities) are also involved, including Home and Community-Based (HCB) Medicaid Services Waiver funded programs nationwide.
In the catalysts of Heck reaction, precious metal Pd was the most used active component. Supported Pd catalysts displayed many advantages. Compared with the traditional homogeneous Pd(OAc) 2, PdCl 2 catalysts in Heck reaction, CNTs-supported Pd catalyst has higher catalytic activity, better stability, easier separation and more satisfactory reusability.
In experimental process, carbon nanotube supported Pd catalysts were prepared using chemical reduction. Additional chemical reductant is used to solve the agglomeration of Pd nanoparticles.
Many experiments about alumina were conducted at the early period, which helped people to realize that catalysts supported on different species of alumina have different catalytic properties. During the same time frame, it was noticed that the catalyst and the support were cooperating in some cases to produce two simultaneous and mutually beneficial reactions. This was called the dual-functioning catalyst and was observed in those hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, and reforming catalysts reactions.
The catalyst supports can improve specific properties such as mechanical strength, distribution, stability, catalytical reactivity and selectivity of catalysts. The definition of the support is broad: the shape of support varies, including granular, powdered, colloidal, coprecipitated, extruded, pelleted, spherical, wires, honeycombs, and skeletal supports. Catalyst supports can be either inert or active in reactions. The ensemble of the catalyst and its support can be regarded as an entirety: supported catalyst.
The Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) process needs to be catalyzed by certain transition metals as Co, Fe, and Ru which present the highest activity. Among them, Co catalysts are preferred because of their high activity and selectivity to linear hydrocarbons for FTS, more stable, and low cost compared to Ru. Activated carbon has many advantages, such as resistance to acidic or basic media, stable at high temperatures, etc., serving as FTS catalyst support. Using carbon nanotubes as Co catalyst support was found to decrease the temperature of cobalt oxide species. The strong metal-support interactions are reduced greatly and the reducibility of the catalysts improved significantly. CNTs help to increase the dispersion of metal clusters and thus decreasing the average cobalt clusters size. Research showed that the hydrocarbon yield obtained by inventive CNTs supported Co catalyst is considerably larger than that obtained from Co on alumina supports.
Formic acid is a non-toxic and non-explosive liquid at room temperature. It has low toxicity, facility of storage, handling and primarily high energy density. such advantages are favored for potential applications in small portable fuel cell. Carbon supported Pd catalysts have played a very important role in DFAFC (direct formic acid fuel cell) catalyst research in recent years due to their good activity as well as more efficient Pd metal utilization and lower metal loadings.
The mechanism of formic acid electrooxidation on Pt and Pt-group metal surfaces selection in acid solution follows the dual pathways: dehydrogenation and dehydration. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have higher nanoparticle dispersion as the support of the cathode electrocatalyst. Therefore, it showed a better performance than that electrocatalysts supported on carbon black in DEFCs (direct ethanol fuel cells).
The Mexia State Supported Living Center Sunshine Group released a record titled "Dedicated to the Glory of God and to the Work and Study of Mental Retardation" in the 1970s with the cooperation of music therapist Mrs. Tom Eubanks and Superintendent Malcolm Lauderdale.
In recent years, the Austin State Supported Living Center has come under scrutiny for a variety of serious health and safety violations. In 2009, a Department of Justice settlement agreement was reached in response to allegations of abuse, exploitation, and neglect.
Opened in 1962, the Lufkin State Supported Living Center is located in the heart of East Texas. The facility serves 28 counties and is home to approximately 330 people who have Intellectual Disabilities and varying degrees of disability.
Brenham State Supported Living Center houses approximately 400 residents in 11 residential buildings on 200 acre in unincorporated Washington County, south of Brenham and between Austin and Houston. The state school serves a southeast Texas area including Brazos, Burleson, Grimes, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Montgomery, Robertson, Walker, and Washington counties. It is the largest employer in Brenham.
Opened in June 1969, the Lubbock State Supported Living Center, located in Lubbock, serves 54 counties in the Texas Panhandle. The campus is home to approximately 310 individuals, of whom 66 percent are male and 34 percent female. The average age is 45.
Mexia State supported living center was originally the World War 2 Prisoner of War camp and some of the original Homes for that time period still remain on the campus but are used as storage units.