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Tube (structure) - Tube in tube

Also known as hull and core, these structures have a core tube inside the structure, holding the elevator and other services, and another tube around the exterior. Most of the gravity and lateral loads are normally taken by the outer tube because of its greater strength. The 780 Third Avenue 50-story concrete frame office building in Manhattan uses concrete shear walls for bracing and an off-center core to allow column-free interiors.

Vacuum tube - Tube packages

High-power tubes such as transmitting tubes have packages designed more to enhance heat transfer. In some tubes, the metal envelope is also the anode. The 4CX1000A is an external anode tube of this sort. Air is blown through an array of fins attached to the anode, thus cooling it. Power tubes using this cooling scheme are available up to 150 kW dissipation. Above that level, water or water-vapor cooling are used. The highest-power tube currently available is the Eimac, a forced water-cooled power tetrode capable of dissipating 2.5 megawatts. By comparison, the largest power transistor can only dissipate about 1 kilowatt.

Tube tester - Tube checker

The tube checker is the second-simplest of all tube testers after filament continuity testing. Tubes are used as a low power rectifier, with all elements other than filament connections connected together as the anode, at a fraction of its normal emission. By mistake referred to sometimes as Emission Tester because they are a crude measure of emission in directly heated types (but a measure of unwanted heater-cathode leakage in indirectly heated types). Switches will need to select the correct filament voltage and pins.

Tube (structure) - Bundled tube

Beside being efficient structurally and economically, the bundled tube was "innovative in its potential for versatile formulation of architectural space. Efficient towers no longer had to be box-like; the tube-units could take on various shapes and could be bundled together in different sorts of groupings." The bundled tube structure meant that "buildings no longer need be boxlike in appearance: they could become sculpture."

Tracheal tube - Tracheostomy tube

Several types of tracheostomy tubes are available, depending on the requirements of the patient, including Shiley, Bivona (a silicon tube with metal rings that are good for airways with damage to the tracheal rings or otherwise not straight), and fenestrated.

Speaking tube - Gosport tube

A 'Gosport Tube' was a voice tube used by flight instructors in the early days of military aviation to give instructions and directions to their students. It was invented by flying instructor Robert Raymond Smith-Barry at the School of Special Flying he opened at Gosport in 1917.

Rijke tube - Sondhauss tube

The Sondhauss tube operates in a way that is basically similar to the Rijke tube: Initially, air moves towards the hot, closed end of the tube, where it's heated, so that the pressure at that end increases. The hot, higher-pressure air then flows from the closed end towards the cooler, open end of the tube. The air transfers its heat to the tube and cools. The air surges slightly beyond the open end of the tube, briefly compressing the atmosphere; the compression propagates through the atmosphere as a sound wave. The atmosphere then pushes the air back into the tube, and the cycle repeats. Unlike the Rijke tube, the Sondhauss tube does not require a steady flow of air through it, and whereas the Rijke tube acts as a half-wave resonator, the Sondhauss tube acts as a quarter-wave resonator.

Vacuum tube - Tube packages

The internal elements of tubes have always been connected to external circuitry via pins at their base which plug into a socket. Subminiature tubes were produced using wire leads rather than sockets, however these were restricted to rather specialized applications. In addition to the connections at the base of the tube, many early triodes connected the grid using a metal cap at the top of the tube; this reduces stray capacitance between the grid and the plate leads. Tube caps were also used for the plate (anode) connection, particularly in transmitting tubes and tubes using a very high plate voltage.

Chest tube - Tube thoracostomy

The insertion technique for emergency pleural drainage is described in detail in an article of the NEJM. The free end of the tube is usually attached to an underwater seal, below the level of the chest. This allows the air or fluid to escape from the pleural space, and prevents anything returning to the chest. Alternatively, the tube can be attached to a flutter valve. This allows patients with pneumothorax to remain more mobile.

Chest tube - Tube thoracostomy

Chest tubes can also be placed using a trocar, which is a pointed metallic bar used to guide the tube through the chest wall. This method is less popular due to an increased risk of iatrogenic lung injury. Placement using the Seldinger technique, in which a blunt guidewire is passed through a needle (over which the chest tube is then inserted) has been described.

Tube drawing - Tube sinking

Tube sinking, also known as free tube drawing, reduces the diameter of the tube without a mandrel inside the tube. The inner diameter is determined by the inner and outer diameter of the stock tube, the outer diameter of the final product, the length of the die landing, the amount of back tension, and the friction between the tube and the die. This type of drawing operation is the most economical, especially on thick-walled tubes and tubes smaller than 12 mm in diameter, but does not give the best surface finish. As the tube thickness increases the surface finish quality decreases. This process is often used for the tubing on low-cost lawn furniture.

Vacuum tube - Tube packages

Most modern tubes have glass envelopes, but metal, fused quartz (silica) and ceramic have also been used. A first version of the 6L6 used a metal envelope sealed with glass beads, while a glass disk fused to the metal was used in later versions. Metal and ceramic are used almost exclusively for power tubes above 2 kW dissipation. The nuvistor was a modern receiving tube using a very small metal and ceramic package.

Chest tube - Tube thoracostomy

Chest tubes are usually inserted under local anesthesia. The skin over the area of insertion is first cleansed with antiseptic solution, such as iodine, before sterile drapes are placed around the area. The local anesthetic is injected into the skin and down to the muscle, and after the area is numb a small incision is made in the skin and a passage made through the skin and muscle into the chest. The tube is placed through this passage. If necessary, patients may be given additional analgesics for the procedure. Once the tube is in place it is sutured to the skin to prevent it falling out and a dressing applied to the area. Once the drain is in place, a chest radiograph will be taken to check the location of the drain. The tube stays in for as long as there is air or fluid to be removed, or risk of air gathering.

Rijke tube - Sondhauss tube

The Rijke tube operates with both ends open. However, a tube with one end closed will also generate sound from heat, if the closed end is very hot. Such a device is called a “Sondhauss tube”. The phenomenon was first observed by glassblowers and was first described in 1850 by the German physicist Karl Friedrich Julius Sondhauss (1815–1886). Lord Rayleigh first explained the operation of the Sondhauss tube.

Chest tube - Tube thoracostomy

British Thoracic Society recommends the tube is inserted in an area described as the "safe zone", a region bordered by: the lateral border of pectoralis major, a horizontal line inferior to the axilla, the anterior border of latissimus dorsi and a horizontal line superior to the nipple. More specifically, the tube is inserted into the 5th intercostal space slightly anterior to the mid axillary line.

Tracheal tube - Endotracheal tube

Types of endotracheal tube include oral or nasal, cuffed or uncuffed, preformed (e.g. RAE (Ring, Adair, and Elwyn) tube), reinforced tubes, and double-lumen endobronchial tubes. For human use, tubes range in size from 2 to 10.5 mm in internal diameter (ID). The size is chosen based on the patient's body size, with the smaller sizes being used for pediatric and neonatal patients. Tubes larger than 6 mm ID usually have an inflatable cuff. Originally made from red rubber, most modern tubes are made from polyvinyl chloride. Those placed in a laser field may be flexometallic. Robertshaw (and others) developed double-lumen endo-bronchial tubes for thoracic surgery. These allow single-lung ventilation while the other lung is collapsed to make surgery easier. The deflated lung is re-inflated as surgery finishes to check for fistulas (tears). Another type of endotracheal tube has a small second lumen opening above the inflatable cuff, which can be used for suction of the nasopharngeal area and above the cuff to aid extubation (removal). This allows suctioning of secretions which sit above the cuff which helps reduce the risk of chest infections in long-term intubated patients.

X-ray tube - Coolidge tube (hot cathode tube)

What is special about side-window tubes is an electrostatic lens is used to focus the beam onto a very small spot on the anode. The anode is specially designed to dissipate the heat and wear resulting from this intense focused barrage of electrons. The anode is precisely angled at 1-20 degrees off perpendicular to the electron current so as to allow the escape of some of the X-ray photons which are emitted perpendicular to the direction of the electron current. The anode is usually made out of tungsten or molybdenum. The tube has a window designed for escape of the generated X-ray photons.

X-ray tube - Crookes tube (cold cathode tube)

Crookes tubes generated the electrons needed to create X-rays by ionization of the residual air in the tube, instead of a heated filament, so they were partially but not completely evacuated. They consisted of a glass bulb with around 10 −6 to 5×10 −8 atmospheric pressure of air (0.1 to 0.005 Pa). An aluminum cathode plate at one end of the tube, a platinum anode target. The anode surface was angled so that the X-rays would radiate through the side of the tube. The cathode was concave so that the electrons were focused on a small (~1 mm) spot on the anode, approximating a point source of X-rays, which resulted in sharper images. The tube had a third electrode, an anticathode connected to the anode. It improved the X-ray output, but the method by which it achieved this is not understood. A more common arrangement used a copper plate anticathode (similar in construction to the cathode) in line with the anode such that the anode was between the cathode and the anticathode.

Tube (structure) - Concrete tube structures

The last major buildings engineered by Khan were the One Magnificent Mile and Onterie Center in Chicago, which employed his bundled tube and trussed tube system designs respectively. In contrast to his earlier buildings, which were mainly steel, his last two buildings were concrete. His earlier DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments building, built in 1963 in Chicago, was also a concrete building with a tube structure. Trump Tower in New York City is also another example that adapted this system.

Torpedo tube - Torpedo tube operation

Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks.

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