The captain may be assisted by a vice-captain or in some instances joint vice-captains. This is particularly useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding. Some teams also allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, discipline, field-setting and so on. Sometimes the role of vice-captain is seen as preparation for the player(s) becoming the captain of the side in future.
A vice-captain (or assistant captain) is a player that is expected to captain the side when the club's captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game, the captain is substituted or sent off. Examples include Thomas Müller at Bayern Munich, Marcelo at Real Madrid, Jorginho at Chelsea, Sergio Busquets at Barcelona, Harry Kane at Tottenham Hotspur, James Milner at Liverpool, David de Gea at Manchester United, Fernandinho at Manchester City, and Bellerin at Arsenal
Similarly, some clubs also name a 3rd captain or even a 4th captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable.
Vice-captain, alternate captain (ice hockey) or vice-skip (curling) may refer to a role in a number of sports immediately below the role of captain. The vice-captain may have a number of different roles, including substituting as captain when the regular captain is injured or unavailable, or becoming the new captain if the original captain can't actually be the captain anymore. In some instances, vice-captain can be a similar role to a co-captain, in which there are at least two people who equally share the responsibilities of being the vice-captain. For more information on the role in particular sports, see:
Morris was appointed Australian vice-captain under Lindsay Hassett for a five-Test tour of South Africa in 1949–50, narrowly missing out on the captaincy after a 7–6 vote by the board. He scored two centuries in six tour matches before the Tests. In his first Test in his new leadership role, Morris was out for a duck in Australia's only innings as the team won by an innings. He made starts in the next two Tests, passing twenty but failing to reach a half-century on all four occasions. In the second innings of the Third Test, Morris played fluently to reach 42 on a sticky wicket before stepping on his stumps. Australia looked set for their first Test defeat to South Africa, but an unbeaten Neil Harvey century salvaged a win. Morris returned to form by making 111 and 19 in the drawn Fourth Test in Johannesburg. In between, Morris struck two further centuries in the tour matches, against Border and Transvaal. He finished with a score of 157 in the Fifth Test in Port Elizabeth, laying the foundation for an innings victory and a 4–0 series result. He ended the series with 422 runs at 52.75. On either side of the final Test, Morris added centuries against Griqualand West and Western Province, and for the entire tour had amassed eight centuries, equal to Neil Harvey. At this stage of his career, he had amassed 1,830 runs in 19 Tests at an average of 67.77, with nine centuries. Following the tour, Morris received an invitation from the New South Wales branch of the ruling Liberal Party asking him to stand as a candidate in the forthcoming state elections, an offer that he declined.
''England's popular captain did a magnificent job both as an individual unit of the Test team and as captain of it. His unstinted devotion to his job and the unselfish manner in which he delved in with a will when the going was hardest won the admiration of all Australian enthusiasts and met a fitting reward when England emerged victorious from the Fifth Test at the end of the tour.'' :Bill O'Reilly Frederick Richard Brown was a veteran of Douglas Jardine's Bodyline side of 1932-33 and was Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1933. Born in Peru and educated in Chile and Cambridge University he was a big-hearted, self-confident red-headed all-rounder usually seen wearing a white silk handkerchief round his neck, with a big grin and an avuncular pipe. Over six feet tall and weighing 15 stone (over 200lbs or 100 kilos) he loved to attack the bowling. Captured with Bill Bowes at Tobruk in 1942 Brown spent most of the Second World War in prisoner-of-war camps in Italy and Germany, where they organised games of cricket, baseball and rugby and lost over 60lbs (30 kilos) before being liberated by the Americans. A leg-spinner for Surrey before the war he became a medium-paced seamer in the late 1940s and organised cricket while working as a welfare officer in a Doncaster colliery. When the coal mines were nationalised Brown lost his job and became the captain and assistant-secretary of Northamptonshire County Cricket Club in 1949. From being in seventeenth and last place in the County Championship in 1948 (and failing to win a county match between 1934 and 1939) Brown led Northants to sixth place in 1949. He was rotated in the England captaincy in 1949-50 with George Mann and Norman Yardley without success. He drew twice against a weak New Zealand in 1949 and lost to the West Indies in 1950. After Mann and Yardley had turned down the Ashes tour Brown impressed the selectors by hitting a six into the Lord's Pavilion while smashing 122 out of 131 runs inside two hours as captain in the Gentlemen v Players match, followed with three quick wickets, and he was offered the post the same afternoon. This was still the age when the England captain had to be a gentleman, even if he was a 'passenger' in the team, Brown having made only 233 runs (23.30) and taken 14 wickets (40.79) in his 9 Tests. Despite his age (he turned 40 on tour) Brown had the most successful series of any England captain in Australia; Taking 18 wickets (21.61) and making 210 runs (26.25), third in the batting averages (behind Len Hutton and Reg Simpson) and in the bowling averages (behind Trevor Bailey and Alec Bedser). Brown's jovial bonhomie and refusal to admit defeat won him many fans in Australia and he was a magnificent ambassador for the game, a role which the MCC regarded quite as important as sporting success, and the scorer Bill Ferguson said it was the easiest, happiest tour he had been on for over 40 years. After losing 4-1 to Australia he won 1-0 in New Zealand and beat South Africa 3-1 at home in 1951. At 42 he was recalled to the England team for the 1953 Lord's Test, where took 4/82 and hit 50 runs to ensure a vital draw in the year England regained the Ashes. Like many amateur captains he was happy to take advice from the senior professional and 'Brown conferred with Len Hutton before he made a bowling change...there was little room for doubt...that Brown had tremendous respect for Hutton's advice on the cricket field', as well he should as the Yorkshireman was recognised as 'a tactical genius, whose advice was often sought', Actually making a northern professional vice-captain was a step too far and this office was granted to the debonair Middlesex batsman Denis Compton, the first professional cricketer to hold that office in living memory. Though Brown also conferred with Compton on the field, it was only after he had spoken to Hutton. The young Trevor Bailey surprised everybody by drawing up plans for dismissing and containing every Australian batsmen, which were used to great effect in the series.
He began well with a 3-0 victory over India in 1952 and regained the Ashes 1-0 in 1953. England pulled back from being 2-0 down to square a series in the West Indies in 1953-54 despite political interference, riots and dubious umpiring. England drew 1-1 with Pakistan in 1954, but Hutton was ill for two Tests and the Rev David Sheppard captained England. There was talk that the Sussex amateur should lead the MCC in Australia and New Zealand. Fortunately, wiser counsels prevailed and Hutton was confirmed as captain. Of the amateurs on tour Bill Edrich was an old comrade and had been a professional before the war, and the others - Reg Simpson, Trevor Bailey, Peter May and Colin Cowdrey - had been schoolboys when Hutton was making Test centuries. As a result, Hutton's right to the captaincy was not questioned, the team were happy to play under him and his conscientious vice-captain Peter May was particularly helpful. As a working class Yorkshireman he was not fully adept in social graces, and he gave his after-dinner speeches in "Pudsey English". When dealing with the press corps, Hutton used heavy silences and "developed the art when it suited him of delivering with much gravity Delphic utterances which his hearers could interpret however they pleased"
When Lindsay Hassett retired after the 1953 Ashes Series his vice-captain Arthur Morris was not appointed to succeed him because he was not a state captain. In 1954-55 Australia had not played a Test series since and the selectors were divided as to who should be captain. As with everything else down under cricket was divided between the power centres of Sydney, New South Wales and Melbourne, Victoria. The fast bowling all-rounder Keith Miller was captain of New South Wales and the winner of the 1954-55 Sheffield Shield. He had the obvious advantage of being an automatic selection for the Australian team, and was a charismatic and inspirational leader on the field. Against him was his cavalier approach to the game and that he was little inclined to enforce discipline. His rival was the captain of Victoria, the off-spinner Ian Johnson. Johnson had been little used on the 1948 tour and was left behind in 1953 and was not an automatic selection for the Test team. However, he was the son of the Test selector William Johnson, had attended the elite Wesley College. Lindsay Hassett and the chairman of selectors Don Bradman favoured Johnson and he was appointed captain by the A.C.B.. Unlike Miller he was seen as a safe pair of hands and he was an astute captain and a fine ambassador for Australian cricket, but not everybody was happy with the choice. Frank Tyson reckoned that his innings victory in the First Test cost Australia the series as it confirmed Johnson in the captaincy, whereas Miller might have won the next three vital Tests. As it was vice-captain Arthur Morris was blamed for the defeat in Sydney and (strangely) Melbourne and the selectors stuck by Johnson. He went on to captain the successful Australian tour of the West Indies in 1954-55, where his diplomacy ensured that he did not suffer the same problems as Len Hutton in 1953-54, and his captaincy was considered to be equal to that of Richie Benaud. He retired after the Australian tour of England, Pakistan and India in 1956, where he again failed to regain the Ashes after being 1-0 up in the series.
''Ray Illingworth's England side in 1970-71 were mentally the toughest English side I played against, and the experience of playing against them first up in my Test career reinforced what I had learnt in the backyard. Test cricket was not for the faint of heart. Illingworth subjected us to a mental intimidation by aggressive field placings, and physical intimidation by constant use of his pace attack, ably led by one of the best fast bowlers of my experience, John Snow. Winning to Illingworth was something he expected of himself and demanded of his team.'' :Greg Chappell'' When Ray Illingworth left Yorkshire in 1968 after a contract dispute it looked like the 36-year-old off-spinner's Test career was over. However, he transferred to Leicestershire and was made county captain. Although he had never been captain his great experience and knowledge of the game were widely believed to have guided Yorkshire to their County Championship victories in 1966, 1967 and 1968. He had an immediate effect on the unfancied Midlands side, which would take them to four one day trophies in the early 1970s and the County Championship in 1975. The selectors had long regarded Kent's Colin Cowdrey as England's natural captain, but he broke an Achilles tendon early in the season and Illingworth was his surprise replacement after only a month as county captain. Illingworth had been in and out of the national side for years and had taken 20 wickets (13.30) against India in 1967 and 13 more (22.39) against Australia in 1968. He was chosen over his rivals such as former captain Brian Close or vice-captain Tom Graveney as he was not a threat to Cowdrey's long-term captaincy due to his age and inability to establish a regular spot in the Test team. In the Second Test against the West Indies at Lord's England collapsed to 61/5, but the new skipper made a forceful 113 out of the last 155 runs and became a hero. He beat both the West Indies and New Zealand 2-0 and remained captain even when Cowdrey recovered. In 1970 Illingworth had yet to lose a Test and overall he captained England in 31 Tests in 1969-73, winning 12, drawing 14 and losing 5. The Yorkshireman was 'tough, combative, grudging, shrewd, and an instinctive reader of the game', and an experienced, non-nonsense captain who expected his team to play like professionals. David Gower wrote 'no matter how highly Ray might regard you as a player he would not have you in his team, come hell or high water, unless he was utterly convinced that you could do the job he had allocated to you'. He encouraged 'difficult' players like Geoff Boycott and John Snow who both responded with their best Test performances on the tour. 'Most of all, because he insisted on his "own side", he was able to get the best out of his players, both mentally and physically. He built up a tremendous team spirit which stood us in good stead on numerous occasions'. They tended to close ranks and treat the opposition, umpires, press and public as the enemy, an attitude that became prevalent amongst Test teams in the 1970s.
There have been few shrewder captains than Ian Chappell, who knew how to squeeze the last drop out of any situation that might help give his team an advantage. He was an absolute master at putting pressure on the opposition with just the right run rate or with a field that could be almost impossible to pierce ... Some of his tactics were quite intimidatory and stank of out-and-out gamesmanship that made old pros like me wince. It was an open secret that he used to encourage his players to give a lot of verbal abuse to rival batsman when they were at the wicket in an attempt to break their concentration. :Tom Graveney Ian Chappell came from a South Australian cricket dynasty, his maternal grandfather Vic Richardson had been captain of Australia and his younger brothers Greg and Trevor Chappell also played for Australia. In the 1960s the young Ian Chappell had been noted as an aggressive batsman and gifted slip fielder who played for South Australia when only 18 and Australia when 21. He was not an immediate success with the bat, he made only one century in his first 17 Tests, but kept his place due to some extraordinary slip catches and his ability as a part-time leg-spinner. He ended his run-drought with 548 runs (68.50) against the West Indies in 1968–69. He was known as a man who could make runs when Australia were under pressure, and some thought he was a better batsman than his gifted brother Greg for this reason. Despite a poor tour of South Africa in 1969–70 Chappell was made Bill Lawry's vice-captain in the 1970–71 Ashes series. Lawry's defensive tactics earned him few friends and when Australia went into the last Test needing a victory to retain the Ashes he was controversially replaced by the aggressive Chappell, who had already made two centuries in the series. Chappell won the toss, put England in to bat and Australia had a 100 run lead in the first innings, but Ray Illingworth's team fought back to win the Test and the series. Nevertheless, Chappell was made captain for the 1972 Ashes series and his young team surprised Illingworth's veterans by halving the series 2–2. He now had young talent in the shape of Rod Marsh, Greg Chappell, Dennis Lillee, Bob Massie, Ross Edwards, Max Walker and Jeff Thomson and moulded them into a tough, combative team that dominated the mid-1970s; they beat Pakistan 3–0 and the West Indies 2–0 in 1972–73, New Zealand 2–0 in 1973–74, England 4–1 in 1974–75 and 1–0 in 1975. This success was not without its price as the Ugly Australians won few prizes for sportsmanship, with Chappell demanding 100% commitment from his players, and winning at all costs. In the 1975 Cricket World Cup Australia made 328/5 against Sri Lanka and Chappell told his team to go easy as the newcomers could not possibly win and he wanted to improve their image, but he reversed his decision when they reached 70/1. As a result, Sidath Wettimuny was carried off the field after being hit three times by Jeff Thomson, the 5'2" Duleep Mendis retired hurt after being hit between the eyes by a bouncer and Australia won by 52 runs. In 1975–76 he passed on the Australian captaincy to his brother Greg, but stayed in the team as they beat Clive Lloyd's West Indians 5–1. He was instrumental in the creation of Kerry Packer's professional World Series Cricket to rival the Australian Board of Control and improve the financial lot of Australian cricketers and captained the WSC Australia XI. When Packer and the ABC came to a deal Chappell returned to Test cricket against England the West Indies in 1979–80 before finally retiring.
Lindsay Hassett had been Don Bradman's vice-captain in 1948, but his rise to the captaincy was not certain despite his seniority and talent. Australian cricket swung around the twin poles of Victoria and New South Wales who dominated the Sheffield Shield. Hassett was captain of Victoria and his rival Arthur Morris was captain of New South Wales, with some board members being biased against Hassett's Irish Catholic background, he only received the post by the barest of margins (7-6). Hassett was 37 by the 1950-51 season and Morris was tipped to lead the 1953 tour of England, but remained vice-captain to Hassett and his Victorian successor Ian Johnson and only led Australia in two Tests in their absence (which he both lost). Hassett himself was a dimulative (5'6") batsman who had been a great strokemaker before the war and had made his Test debut in England in 1938. He performed well for the Australian Services cricket team and in the Victory Tests against England in 1945. After the war he took his batting more seriously and was more defensive, though never dull, and he never failed in a series. He had an impish good humour, but as captain tended to become serious on the field. Although a keen tactician he lacked the aggressiveness and self-confidence of Bradman, but then he also lacked Bradman's batting and Hassett would see Australia overshadowed by the strong England teams of the mid-1950s.
Bill Lawry succeeded his opening partner Bobby Simpson as Australian captain midway through the victorious 4-0 series victory over India in 1967-68, he retained the Ashes 1-1 in 1968 and defeated the West Indies 3-1 in 1968-69. The 1969-70 the tour of India was successful - Australia won 3-1 - but the non-smoking, non-drinking Lawry had little time for the social side of the tour, was unable to maintain good public relations and manager Fred Bennett submitted an unfavourable report. In the subsequent tour of South Africa he lost 4-0 and he sent the Australian Cricket Board a list of player grievances. According to vice-captain Ian Chappell, "That was the end of Lawry as captain of Australia. Then it was just a matter of finding any excuse to get rid of him". In 1970-71 he was determined to retain the Ashes, but chose to do this by batting every match into a draw and was criticised by his cautious, negative captaincy. With a victory required in the final Test to even the series and retain The Ashes the selectors dismissed Lawry, the first time an Australian captain had been dropped in mid-series. They failed to inform Lawry, who heard the news on the radio and was soon besieged by reporters. He accepted the verdict with his usual stoicism, but it was the end of his Test career and Australia lost a great opening batsman aged only 33. His successor Ian Chappell was far more aggressive and inspirational captain, but lost the last Test and with it The Ashes. However he recreated the Australian team in his own image and by 1974-75 it would be the most powerful Test team in the world.
Michael Henry Denness was the leader of the 1974-75 touring team and the first Scottish-born captain of the England cricket team (Douglas Jardine was born in India of Scottish parents). The late 1960s and early 1970s had seen a split in the ranks of English cricket as the nature of the captaincy. The conservatives saw cricket as uniting the Commonwealth with sportsmanship and social skills as important as cricketing ability and preferred the old style amateur captains with public school backgrounds. In the 1960s they had supported the avuncular Colin Cowdrey, but he was a naturally cautious captain whose stints as England captain were broken by ill-timed injuries. The reformers called for tough, professional captains dedicated to winning Test matches, such as Brian Close and Ray Illingworth, who succeeded Cowdrey in 1969 when he damaged his Achilles heel. Illingworth's success as captain gave England 27 consecutive Tests without defeat, including regaining the Ashes in 1970-71 and retaining them in 1972. However, Illingworth could only maintain his place as long as he was winning and he was sacked minutes after losing to the West Indies by an innings and 226 runs in 1973. Mike Denness had succeeded Cowdrey as the captain of Kent and was the surprise choice to lead England to the West Indies in 1973-74, though he had been Tony Lewis's vice-captain in India in 1972-73. Denness was seen a compromise candidate as he was a university graduate and a professional cricketer, though he was not a regular England player. Others pressed for the return of Cowdrey, Close or Illingworth. Boycott thought he should have the job and proved highly critical of Denness's captaincy. The Scot made a good start in the West Indies by drawing the series 1-1 and dealing diplomatically with the problems arising in the Caribbean in the wake of the exclusion of South Africa from Test cricket, though the press found him a bit dour. In 1974 he did even better, beating India 3-0 while making 289 runs (96.33), though Boycott opined that a donkey could have led the team to victory. He therefore went to Australia with some degree of confidence, but soon things went wrong. He picked up a mystery virus which prevented him from playing and affected his form. Though a natural player of spin he was soon found to have a weakness against the Australian fast bowlers and suffered in the Tests, so that he became the first Test captain to drop himself for bad form. Ironically, he returned for the Sixth Test at Sydney when Dennis Lillee and Jeff Thomson were unfit to play, made 188 - the highest Test score by an England captain in Australia - and won by an innings. He beat New Zealand with a batting average of 240.00 and retained the captaincy for the 1975 Cricket World Cup, where England lost to Australia in the semi-finals. He lost the First Test of the 1975 Ashes series by an innings and was replaced by the combative Tony Greig, never to play Test cricket again.
In 1958 life looked good for Peter May of Charterhouse, Cambridge, Surrey and England; his county had been County Champions for seven years running, with May the captain for the last two seasons, and England had never been defeated under his leadership. Vice-captain on the triumphant tour of Australia in 1954-55 he had beaten South Africa 3-2 in 1955, considered by many to have been the most exciting Test series since the war, Australia 2-1 in 1956, the West Indies 3-0 in 1957 and New Zealand 4-0 in 1958. He was widely regarded as the best post-war batsman England produced, tall, strong and disciplined with a near-perfect technique, a straight bat and a complete range of strokes. His standards improved with the responsibilities of captaincy and his Test average as captain was 54.03. His greatest century was against the West Indies in 1957 when England followed on 288 runs behind at Edgbaston, he made 285 not out, the highest score by an England captain until Graham Gooch's 333 in 1990, adding 411 with Colin Cowdrey (154) - still an England record for any wicket - and destroyed the mesmerising hold the spinner Sonny Ramadhin had over English batsmen. In the low scoring Ashes series of 1956 he had made 453 runs (90.60) and was out only once for less than 50, when he made 43. Although himself a highly educated amateur and a gentleman he realised that the old class divisions in English cricket were breaking down and under Len Hutton's leadership the amateur and professional had merged. He enjoyed the complete loyalty of the team and the selectors and was ready to help his players and smooth down feathers. As a captain he was a strict team disciplinarian who expected high standards, he was ruthless when the occasion demanded, but could be inflexible and unimaginative and lacked the charisma of a natural leader. In 1958-59 he played too defensively and surrendered the initiative to readily to Benaud as he concentrated on saving runs instead of trying to get batsmen out. Faced with Meckiff's bowling in the disastrous First Test he declined to make an official complaint as it would appear unsporting and sour grapes. A more ruthless captain may have resolved this problem at the start of the series, even at the loss of Tony Lock, but that would have damaged Anglo-Australian cricketing relations. After the Australian tour May beat New Zealand 1-0, India 5-0 and led England to its first series victory in the West Indies 1-0. He lost 2-1 to the 1961 Ashes series and retired due to ill-health having been captain in a then record 41 Tests, Richie Benaud being the only man to defeat him in a Test series.
Tom Lehman was named as a United States vice-captain at the same press conference that Love was named as captain. In November 2015 three more vice-captains were named: Jim Furyk, Steve Stricker and Tiger Woods. All three had been members of the American Task Force. On September 27, 2016, Love selected Bubba Watson as the fifth vice-captain.
Bjørn selected Robert Karlsson as his first vice-captain in May 2017. In May 2018 he selected four more vice-captains: Luke Donald, Pádraig Harrington, Graeme McDowell and Lee Westwood. Raphaël Jacquelin was also on hand for the Europeans, as an assistant.
A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, and correspondent on the pitch. Manchester United has had both of these types of captains: Roy Keane was the club captain on and off the pitch from 1997 to 2005 as he was a regular in the starting eleven, but his successor Gary Neville while nominally club captain from 2005 to 2010 had made few first team appearances due to injuries. In his absence other players (Rio Ferdinand or vice-captain Ryan Giggs) were chosen to captain the team on the field, such as in the 2008 (Ferdinand was captain as he was in the starting eleven, while Giggs was a substitute) and 2009 UEFA Champions League Finals, respectively. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain.
The European vice-captains were Thomas Bjørn, Darren Clarke, Sergio García, Paul McGinley and José María Olazábal. Olazábal was added as a fifth vice-captain during the tournament, when the revised format meant that there were not enough vice-captains to cover all six matches simultaneously.
The only European vice-captain was José María Olazábal. Paul McGinley had been announced as a vice-captain in May 2007 but resigned in September 2007.
In July 2013, Watson named Andy North as a vice-captain. In February 2014, he named Raymond Floyd as his second vice-captain and in August he chose Steve Stricker as a third vice-captain.