The Boston Associates tried to create a controlled system of labor unlike the harsh conditions they observed while in Lancashire, England. The owners recruited young New England farm girls from the surrounding area to work the machines at Waltham. The mill girls lived in company boarding houses and were subject to strict codes of conduct and supervised by older women. They worked about 80 hours per week. Six days per week, they woke to the factory bell at 4:40am and reported to work at 5am and had a half-hour breakfast break at 7am They worked until a lunch break of 30 to 45 minutes around noon. The workers returned to their company houses at 7pm when the factory closed. This system became known as the Waltham System.
The Waltham Blacks were a group of deer poachers operating and terrorising local people, and were famous, not only for deer stealing, but also for having an Act of Parliament passed to stop them. The Act, passed in 1723, made it a felony to "appear armed, disguised or with a blackened face, being so designed to kill deer, rob a warren or to steal fish".
In 1899 or early 1900, Tinker and Piper left the Waltham Manufacturing Company through consensual agreement with, and support from, Charles Metz, to start their own business. Their Waltham Automobile Company was located at 130-136 Newton Street in Waltham and started building small steam-powered stanhopes that sold for $750 with a Victoria top. Further, there might have been some steamers with Vis-à-vis coachwork.
Of the unknown number of Waltham steam vehicles built, one Stanhope is still in existence.
In 1907 the company name changed to Waltham Watch Co. (WWCo), in 1923 briefly to the Waltham Watch and Clock Company and finally in 1925 to the Waltham Watch Company (WWC).
An unrelated company in Springfield, Massachusetts also produced a steam powered automobile under the Waltham name in 1905.
The Waltham Watch Company (later known as Waltham of Chicago) was founded by one of the executives of the Hallmark Watch Company to carry on the Waltham trade name in the watch business. In exchange for rights to the name, existing Waltham Watch Company (Mass) shareholders received 1 share of the new company for every 5 shares of the original company.
The company closed its factory doors and declared bankruptcy in 1949, although the factory briefly reopened a few times, primarily to finish and case existing watch inventory for sale. Several different plans were presented to restart the business, but all failed for various reasons. In 1958, the company got out of the consumer watch business completely and reorganized into the Waltham Precision Instruments Company. All remaining watch inventory had been sold to the Hallmark Watch Company the previous year, and rights to the "Waltham" trademark were sold to a new Waltham Watch Company incorporated in Delaware in exchange for stock.
In 2009 production of the newspaper moved out of Waltham Forest for the first time in its history, with staff relocating to an office in nearby Epping in Essex. The newspaper subsequently relocated again to a Newsquest office in Watford.
Before the Waltham Watch Company went out of business in 1957, it founded a subsidiary in Switzerland in 1954, Waltham International SA. Waltham International SA retains the right to the Waltham trade name outside of North America, and continues to produce mechanical wrist watches and mechanical pocket watches under the "Waltham" brand.
In 1959, the Waltham Watch Company merged with the Hallmark Watch Company, giving the new company access to replacement parts to service existing Waltham watch owners. The company came under much scrutiny by the Federal Trade Commission throughout the 1960s, and ultimately was forced to change its advertising and branding policies to clearly indicate that it was not directly related to the original Waltham company, and that its products were not made in America.
Enough money had already been raised for the construction of the railway's earthworks and track and these were completed quickly, with the first train reaching Bishops Waltham in June 1863. However the BWR was forced to take out further loans and a mortgage to fund the construction of a passenger station and a goods yard at Bishops Waltham, which were not completed until March 1865 at a cost of £8,000. The branch earnt its owners only minimal profits in the first few years once the small company's interest payments and the LSWR's operating costs had been paid.
The BWR tried to fix an agreement with the LSWR to extend the line further in search of extra traffic and a second company, the Bishop's Waltham & Petersfield Railway (BW&PR), again led by Arthur Helps, was formed to try to secure investment for the project. This unfortunately coincided with a minor banking crisis and a recession in the British economy which saw investment in new railway projects dry up. It also further reduced traffic over the Bishop's Waltham branch line which was dealt a fatal blow in April 1867 when the Bishop's Waltham Clay Company, the local brickworks and one of the railway's main customers, went into liquidation and ceased production.
The LSWR objected to the proposed BW,B&BR as a potential competitor to its own line and refused to an agreement. However the LSWR was equally wary that its main rival, the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) would secure the rights to operate the line itself and thus be able to run its services right into the heart of LSWR territory. The LSWR and the BW,B&BR reached an agreement that the smaller company would reduce its plans to a simple branch between Botley and Bishop's Waltham. The LSWR would operate the line at a favourable rate and would consider an extension to Petersfield in the future. The BW,B&BR changed its name to the Bishops Waltham Railway Company (BWR) and an Act of Parliament secured in 1862.
In 1885 the company name changed to the American Waltham Watch Company (AWWCo).
Specialized clocks and chronographs for use in aircraft control panels continued to be made in the Waltham factory by the Waltham Precision Instruments Company until the company was sold in 1994. The company is now based in Alabama, as the Waltham Aircraft Clock Corporation.
In 1996, astronaut David Scott, commander of the Apollo 15 mission in 1971, stated that he wore a Waltham watch on his third lunar EVA when his standard Omega Speedmaster Professional chronograph became damaged. In 2014, he confessed that he had made a mistake: "it was a Bulova, not a Waltham."
The 1937 Ford sedans had Waltham speedometers, reputedly the only speedometer in a Ford to display the name of its manufacturers. A testor at the time was quoted as saying that accuracy had to be "plus or minus 10 MPH".
The branch had its origins in a much grander plan put forward in the early 1860s. A group of businessmen in the Southampton area proposed a railway running across eastern Hampshire into Southampton. They were led by Arthur Helps, a prominent national figure (he had recently been made Clerk of the Privy Council) and writer. He owned an estate near Bishop's Waltham and had financed the creation of the town's Coke & Gas Company and a brickworks. The aim of the Bishop's Waltham, Botley & Bursledon Railway (BW,B&BR) was to link the proposed Petersfield & Midhurst Railway to the main line into Southampton which was owned by the London and South Western Railway (LSWR). The LSWR was a large and established company having built the South Western Main Line between London and Southampton in the 1830s. The promoters of the Bishop's Waltham Railway, like many similar small railway undertakings, hoped to arrange for the LSWR to operate the line once it was built in return for a share of the takings.
In tribute, upon the Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln was presented with a William Ellery, key wind watch Waltham Model 1857, serial number 67613. This watch is now in the collection of the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.