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WASTE - WASTE networks

Since there is no central hub, WASTE networks typically employ a password or passphrase, also called a network name to prevent collision. That is, a member from one network connecting to a member of another network, thus bridging the two networks. By assigning a unique identifier (passphrase) to your network, the risk of collisions can be reduced, particularly with the original clients.

WASTE - WASTE networks

The suggested size for a WASTE network (referred to as a mesh by users) is 10-50 nodes, though it has been suggested that the size of the network is less critical than the ratio of nodes willing to route traffic to those that are not. With original Nullsoft-client groups now exceeding ten years of age, it's not uncommon for stable meshes to host multiple terabytes of secure content.

WASTE - WASTE networks

Since WASTE connects small, private groups rather than large, public ones, the network search feature is one of the fastest of all the decentralized P2P applications. Its instant messaging and file sharing capabilities are much closer to those of AOL Instant Messenger than more typical file sharing programs. Members of the network can create private and public chat rooms, instant message each other, browse each other's files, and trade files, including the pushing or active sending of files by hosts, as well as the more common downloading by users. Simple drag-and-drop to chat boxes will send files to their intended destinations.

WASTE - WASTE networks

By default, WASTE listens to incoming connections on port 1337. This was probably chosen because of 1337's leet connotations.

WASTE - WASTE networks

WASTE networks are decentralized (see social networks), meaning there is no central hub or server that everyone connects to. Peers must connect to each other individually. Normally, this is accomplished by having individuals sharing their RSA public keys, ensuring that their computers are accessible via the appropriate ports (one or more parties must have an IP address and port that can be reached by the other), and entering the IP address and port of someone on the network to connect to.

Waste collection - Commercial waste

Waste collection considerations include type and size of bins, positioning of the bins, and how often bins are to be serviced. Overfilled bins result in rubbish falling out while being tipped. Hazardous rubbish like empty petrol cans can cause fires igniting other trash when the truck compactor is operating. Bins may be locked or stored in secure areas to avoid having non-paying parties placing rubbish in the bin. The cost of old waste is also a concern in collection of waste across the globe.

Waste broker - Waste Broker

The client would typically have some rubbish (trash) to take away, and rather than ring round a few contractors in the area they ring the Waste Broker, and give them all the details of what they want. This Broker person or organisation will have a list of those contractors in the area, and it is they who will do the ringing round or emailing, to see who is available to do the client's pickup.

Waste collection - Household waste

Mexico City residents must haul their trash to a waste collection vehicle which makes frequent stops around each neighborhood. The waste collectors will indicate their readiness by ringing a distinctive bell and possibly shouting. Residents line up and hand their trash container to the waste collector. A tip may be expected in some neighborhoods. Private contracted waste collectors may circulate in the same neighborhoods as many as five times per day, pushing a cart with a waste container, ringing a bell and shouting to announce their presence. These private contractors are not paid a salary, and survive only on the tips they receive. Later, they meet up with a waste collection vehicle to deposit their accumulated waste.

Waste collection - Household waste

The waste collection vehicle will often take the waste to a transfer station where it will be loaded up into a larger vehicle and sent to either a landfill or alternative waste treatment facility.

Waste (law) - Equitable waste

Under English law and Australian law, equitable waste is waste that a life tenant has a right to commit at common law but is restrained by a court of equity. This doctrine fits under the broader framework of equity, in which a legal right to do something is not so unrestrained that it is impossible to abuse that right. A life tenant who is granted an estate "without impeachment of waste" (may not be sued for waste) may not commit acts of flagrant destruction inconsistent with the fruitful use of the land. For example, a mansion may not be stripped of its glass, timber or pipes (Vane v Lord barnard), nor may trees of an ornamental value be cut down by the life tenant (Turner v Wright).

Radioactive waste - Transuranic waste

Under U.S. law, transuranic waste is further categorized into "contact-handled" (CH) and "remote-handled" (RH) on the basis of the radiation dose rate measured at the surface of the waste container. CH TRUW has a surface dose rate not greater than 200 mrem per hour (2 mSv/h), whereas RH TRUW has a surface dose rate of 200 mrem/h (2 mSv/h) or greater. CH TRUW does not have the very high radioactivity of high-level waste, nor its high heat generation, but RH TRUW can be highly radioactive, with surface dose rates up to 1,000,000 mrem/h (10,000 mSv/h). The U.S. currently disposes of TRUW generated from military facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in a deep salt formation in New Mexico.

Radioactive waste - Transuranic waste

Transuranic waste (TRUW) as defined by U.S. regulations is, without regard to form or origin, waste that is contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranic radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years and concentrations greater than 100 nCi/g (3.7 MBq/kg), excluding high-level waste. Elements that have an atomic number greater than uranium are called transuranic ("beyond uranium"). Because of their long half-lives, TRUW is disposed more cautiously than either low- or intermediate-level waste. In the U.S., it arises mainly from nuclear weapons production, and consists of clothing, tools, rags, residues, debris and other items contaminated with small amounts of radioactive elements (mainly plutonium).

Waste collection - Household waste

Household waste in economically developed countries will generally be left in waste containers or recycling bins prior to collection by a waste collector using a waste collection vehicle. A waste collection barges are used in some towns, for example in Venice, Italy.

Waste management - Waste hierarchy

The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of end waste; see: resource recovery. The waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is that policies should promote measures to prevent the generation of waste. The next step or preferred action is to seek alternative uses for the waste that has been generated i.e. by re-use. The next is recycling which includes composting. Following this step is material recovery and waste-to-energy. The final action is disposal, in landfills or through incineration without energy recovery. This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented, diverted or recovered. The waste hierarchy represents the progression of a product or material through the sequential stages of the pyramid of waste management. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product.

Waste (law) - Ameliorative waste

Ameliorative waste is an improvement to an estate that changes its character even if the change increases the land's value. Under English common law, when ameliorative waste occurs, the interested party can recover from the tenant the cost of restoring the land to its original condition. This is based on traditional common law jurisprudence presuming that the grantor intended the property to be kept in its original condition.

Waste (law) - Permissive waste

Permissive waste is failure to maintain the estate, either physically or financially. Rather than requiring some bad act on the part of the tenant, this requires the failure to maintain ordinary repairs, pay taxes, or pay interest on the mortgage by the life tenant or the lessee of a leasehold estate.

Radioactive waste - Legacy waste

Due to historic activities typically related to radium industry, uranium mining, and military programs, numerous sites contain or are contaminated with radioactivity. In the United States alone, the Department of Energy states there are "millions of gallons of radioactive waste" as well as "thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel and material" and also "huge quantities of contaminated soil and water." Despite copious quantities of waste, the DOE has stated a goal of cleaning all presently contaminated sites successfully by 2025. The Fernald, Ohio site for example had "31 million pounds of uranium product", "2.5 billion pounds of waste", "2.75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and debris", and a "223 acre portion of the underlying Great Miami Aquifer had uranium levels above drinking standards." The United States has at least 108 sites designated as areas that are contaminated and unusable, sometimes many thousands of acres. DOE wishes to clean or mitigate many or all by 2025, using the recently developed method of geomelting, however the task can be difficult and it acknowledges that some may never be completely remediated. In just one of these 108 larger designations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there were for example at least "167 known contaminant release sites" in one of the three subdivisions of the 37000 acre site. Some of the U.S. sites were smaller in nature, however, cleanup issues were simpler to address, and DOE has successfully completed cleanup, or at least closure, of several sites.

Waste collection - Household waste

However, in many developing countries, such as Mexico and Egypt, waste left in bins or bags at the side of the road will not be removed unless residents interact with the waste collectors.

Global waste trade - Electronic waste

One city suffering from the negative results of the hazardous waste trade is Guiyu, China, which has been called the electronic waste dump of the world. It may be the world's largest e-waste dump, with workers dismantling over 1.5 million pounds of junked computers, cell phones and other electronic devices per year.

Global waste trade - Electronic waste

Electronic waste, also known as e-waste, refers to discarded electrical or electronic devices. A rapidly growing surplus of electronic waste around the world has resulted from quickly evolving technological advances, changes in media (tapes, software, MP3), falling prices, and planned obsolescence. An estimated 50 million tons of e-waste are produced each year, the majority of which comes from the United States and Europe. Most of this electronic waste is shipped to developing countries in Asia and Africa to be processed and recycled.